Relationship between Drugs and Crime Name Institution Relationship between Drugs and Crime Psychological Theories Psychological theories entail psychological factors that emphasize the mechanism of reinforcement and those underscoring that the personalities of the drug user vary from those of the abstainer besides being causally related to use and abuse. Notably, the mechanism of reinforcement is often straightforward in that individuals tend to maximize reward and minimize punishment
Children are more likely to become juvenile delinquents if there is little structure provided for them in their families. According to Marianne E. Neifer, the family is both the fundamental unit of society as well as the root of culture. It is a perpetual source of encouragement, advocacy, assurance, and emotional refuelling that empowers a child to venture with confidence into the greater world and to become all that he can be. Therefore it is almost inevitable that children who are rejected by
the case. Child Maltreatment is discussed with government involvement and victim statistics. Two criminal theories of cause are discussed to seek possible causes of offenders to choose to commit the crime of child maltreatment. Finally, theoretical explanations of crime is discussed, with examples of how the theories could explain certain crimes, and the strength and weaknesses of each theory. Overview of Child Maltreatment. “All 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the U.S.
31st December, written by columnists Durgesh Nandan Jha and Vishwa Mohan, reads, “Don’t let Nirbhaya’s fire die”. The article is a continuation of the 2012 Delhi gang rape case that took place on 16th December, where a 23 year old female physiotherapist intern was beaten and raped for ninety minutes by six men of which one was a juvenile aged 17 years. The 23-year-old woman and her male friend were on their way back from a movie, in a bus, where the six men attacked her, and while her friend attempted
Labeling theory and social learning theory are two theories that may be compared and contrasted because the theories are somewhat similar but still differ. Although these theories have their similarities and differences, one theory may prove to be more convincing in terms of giving a better account for crime and having better theory-related policies that would best help to decrease crime rates. Under labeling theory, criminal behavior is based on the state stamping the behavior as criminal, instead
The basic postulate of social control theory is that strong bonds to the major social institutions will prevent delinquency (Steketee, Junger, & Junger-Tas, 2013). The data used in their study is based on the ISRD-2, which was carried out among adolescents in 25 European countries and 5 countries in North and South America. However, literature conveys that family disruptions also play an important role when it comes to girls and delinquent behavior (Junger-Tas et al., 2012) when controlled for the
Bronfenbrenner “the person’s evolving conception of the ecological environment, and his relation to it, as well as the person’s growing capacity to discover, sustain or alter its properties” (Bronfenbrenner U. , 1979, p. 9) Bronfenbrenner developed a theory with micro-, meso-, macro-, exo- and chronosystems in which all sorts of factors that influence the behaviour could be considered. (Visser, 2007) Micro-system explores the relations of the person in his immediate environment (parents, partner, child
Narratives of Long-Term Street Children in Moshi, Tanzania There is an estimated 100 million street children worldwide (Office of UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, OHCHR, 2011) with a further estimate of 600 street children in Mwanza alone, Tanzania’s second largest city (Lockhart, 2002). Some attempts have been made to monitor the increase in numbers. For example, estimation of numbers sky rocketed from 200 – 300 street children in 1991 in Dar es Salaam to 3,500 in 1995 (Bamurange, 1998). These