Importance Of Stakeholders In Tourism

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2.4.1 Identification of stakeholders “Any Group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of the organization objectives” (Freeman, 1984, p.46) is a stakeholder. Stakeholders include any person, group, or institution that is affected good or badly by a specific issue or its outcome. In this research paper the word stakeholder will be used in reference to institution, people or communities who effect or are affected by tourism product or services directly or indirectly. While this definition is direct, it is often challenging to answer vital questions such as: • Which stakeholders benefit more? • Who should contribute more towards the promotion of tourist product and services? • Which entity is accountable for the promotion…show more content…
This group includes women, indigenous tribes, impoverished and disenfranchised groups. According to Aas et al. (2005, p.4) “tourism stakeholders include any individuals or groups involved, interested in, or affected (positively or negatively) by tourism”. 2.4.2 Stakeholder Management As DMO’s functions continue to change, it is expected of them to take the leading role in managing varied stakeholder interests to guarantee that tourists are satisfied. Stakeholder management must be responsive to the needs and interest of all rather than commanding and controlling (Jonker, Foster. 2002. P187). Donaldson and Presot argued that in stakeholder theory not all stakeholders should be equally involved in decision making process (1995, p65-91). Participation in the DMO activities by stakeholders may be active for some, while passive for others. However, it is the DMO’s prerogative to ensure that the participation of all stakeholders is encouraged and all input is considered in the making of decisions. The figure below illustrates the six stakeholders’ typology of participation as developed by Pretty (1995, p4-5): Typology Characteristics of each…show more content…
Learning methodologies used to seek multiple perspectives and groups determine how available resources are used. Self- mobilisation and connectedness People participate by taking initiatives independently of external institutions to change systems. They develop contacts with external institutions for resources and technical advice they need, but retain control over resource use. Figure Pretty et al's Typology of Participation (1995) cited in Mowforth and Munt (2008) 2.4.3 Stakeholder Management Models in Tourism Further insight into the topic reveals that key strategies are crucial and should be adopted in identifying stakeholders’ degree of willingness to participate in the collaboration process. To demonstrate this numerous management models exist to advocate management techniques and activities for diverse sets of stakeholders groups. One of the key theorists in Savegeetal.’s, he recommends strategies using two variables: Potential to Cooperate and Potential to Threaten when collaborating with the organisation. Stakeholders Potential for threat to Organisation Hi

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