Human Genome Research Paper

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In June, 2000 President Bill Clinton said, “We are here to celebrate the completion of the entire human genome. Without a doubt, this is the most important, most wondrous map ever produced by human kind.” Founded in 1990, The Human Genome Project was one of the greatest scientific tasks of the twentieth century rivaling The Manhattan Project and the nuclear bomb. Like the nuclear bomb a map of the human genome has unmistakable abilities to change the face of the world. Completed in 2000, this amazing scientific and technological breakthrough granted us the knowledge of every single gene on all 46 chromosomes in the human body. The origins of this breakthrough did not come from the 1990 collaboration of scientists to begin the exploration, but…show more content…
Later on in 1869 during the beginning stages of genetics Friedrich Miescher isolated molecules from a cell nucleus and called it “nuclein”. Friedrich had no idea that he had just discovered the unique hereditary materials of every multi-cellular organism in the universe for the first time. More than a hundred years passed before this “nuclein” molecule was renamed as DNA. In 1952, less than a year after Rosalind Franklin took the historic “Photograph 51” of DNA using x-rays, James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the double helix shape of DNA. They built the first ever DNA model using their double helix configuration and realized how easy it would be to copy the separate strands. A decade later Marshall Nirenberg discovered the genetic code for protein synthesis. They used the recently discovered RNA molecules to synthesize different proteins. Once they made every combination available, they knew there were 60 different messenger RNA codons and 20 amino acids that make up all DNA. In 1977 Frederick Sanger discovered a way to sequence these molecules into a rapid DNA sequencing technique where you could discover the order of each individual codon or acid. Later a…show more content…
This monumental task took more than a decade to complete due to the vastness of the human genome. The project was started for a couple of reasons. It was started because scientists believed it would be the best way to understand the reasoning for cancer and The United States needed a low budget way to study the affects of radiation on DNA (What was). All this research was conducted by massive numbers of scientists at 20 universities around the globe in places like The United States, The United Kingdom, China, Japan, Germany, and France (What was). The Human Genome Project revealed that there are about 20,500 human genes, which is far less than the 50 to 140 thousand genes anticipated (An Overview). This number does not however take away from the extreme complexity of the project and how long it took to finish it. When the project was launched in 1990 the National Human Genome Research Institute believed the project would take fifteen years to complete. The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium released the first rough draft of the human genome in 2000 with about 90 percent of the genes accounted for. Although it was not fully completed this feat was announced to the world as one of the greatest achievements of mankind. In 2003 The Human Genome Project was concluded with its final publication of every single gene in the human

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