Head Restraints Case Study

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Head restraints are designed to restrict head movement during a rear-impact collision and reduce the chance of neck and shoulder injury. They're an important (though often overlooked) safety feature that has been federally mandated in front seating positions since 1969. Head restraints are used to reduce whiplash during collision.[7] Whiplash sprains and/or strains occur in 28-53% of motor vehicle collision victims, making it the most common type of injury in these collisions. The costs annually in the United States of whiplash injury are approximately between 4.5 to 8 billion dollars. Whiplash can have long-term symptoms which can lead to chronic pain. Radanov et al. reported that 24% of patients had symptoms one year after the accident and 18% had symptoms 2 year after the accident. It was also found that between 38 to 52% of whiplash injuries occurred in rear end collisions. Theories have linked the risk of whiplash injury to facet joints, ligaments, inter vertebral discs, vertebral arteries, dorsal root ganglia, and neck muscles.Studies also state that the underlying pathophysiology whiplash associated disorders remain unknown. Another study reported that approximately 50% of whiplash victims had chronic neck pain 15 years after the accident.[7] In order to reduce whiplash…show more content…
portion, that are pre-formed prior to being attached to each other. One or both of the first and second portions may include a cover material for providing an aesthetically pleasing appearance (Class "A" surface) to the head restraint. Alternatively, the cover material can be omitted and the outer surfaces of the first and/or second portions may provide an aesthetically pleasing appearance (Class "A" surface) by using spray skin process. One aspect of this design is that one or both of the first and second portions is made of core material having energy absorbing properties while providing a dimensionally stable

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