Essay On Rice Production

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Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Cultivated rice, Oryza sativa, belongs to family poaceae, is the world’s most important staple food crop, for human population. It provided 27 per cent of the dietary energy supply and 20 per cent of dietary protein intake in the developing world. The global production of rice has been estimated to be at the level of 719 million tones, and the area under rice cultivation is 163 million hectares while in India rice production was 152 million tonnes in the 42 million hectare area (FAOSTAT, 2012). Asia is the leader in rice production accounting for about 90% of the world’s production. Over 75% of the world supply is consumed by people in Asian countries and thus rice is of immense importance to food security of Asia. More importantly, India is the second largest producer after China while it covers the largest area under rice cultivation. Rice has been cultivated worldwide in 163Mha under a wide range of agro-climatic conditions between 55_N and 35_S latitudes from sea level to altitudes of 2,500 m or even higher which further distinguished into four major ecosystems including irrigated, rainfed upland,…show more content…
Still it is insufficient to feed the world expanding population. The current world population is expected to reach 8.0 billion by 2030, so rice production must increase by 25% to meet the growing demand. Further, rice productivity is continually threatened by both biotic (bacterial blight, blast, tungro virus, yellow mottle virus, sheath blight, etc., and insects like plant hoppers, stem borer, and gall midge), and abiotic stress (drought, salinity, submergence, cold, heat, soil toxicities, etc.). One of the major challenges facing agriculture today is the global water shortage caused by the increasing world

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