Enzymes In The Role Of Enzymes

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Throughout the great diversity of living matter there runs a basically similar pattern of chemical changes, by which food is converted into energy and into structural materials for growth and reproduction, while waste products and toxic substances are eliminated. The rate at which these changes take place, and nature of the products formed, are controlled by the properties of catalysts produced by living systems. These catalysts are called as enzymes. Enzymes may be defined as molecules of biological origin which increase the rate of specific reactions, although not affecting the final position of the equilibrium established, and which may be recovered from the reaction mixture at the end of the reaction. This means that, enzymes are macromolecules…show more content…
Acting in coordinated sequences, they catalyze the hundreds of stepwise reactions in metabolic pathways by which nutrient molecules are degraded, chemical energy is conserved and transformed, and biological macromolecules are made from simple precursors. Some of the many enzymes take parts in metabolism are regulatory enzymes, which can respond to various metabolic signals by changing their catalytic activity accordingly. Through the action of regulatory enzymes, enzyme systems are highly organized to yield a harmonious interplay among the many different metabolic activities necessary to sustain life. Therefore, enzymes plays as important practical tools, not only in medicine but also in the chemical industry, in food processing, and in agriculture also become a useful part, even in everyday activities in the home such as food preparation and…show more content…
Most enzymes will only accelerate a single chemical change involving the transformation of one compound only. Other substances either are not acted on at all or only at a much slower rate if they happen to very similar in constitution to the true substrate. Enzymes which only attack a single substance are said to have absolute specificity. However, some enzymes have a different kind of specificity. For those enzymes which have less than absolute specificity requirements it is possible to experiment with different substrates, making systematic changes in their chemical structure to see how the activity of the enzyme toward them is affected. Changes in the substrate may modify enzymes activity in two ways. Firstly, the enzyme may be able to bind the altered substrate better, or worse or even not at all. Secondly, if it is bound, the rate at which the new substrate is broken down into reaction products may be faster, slower, or zero. The case of a change in the substrate producing attachment to the enzyme but it is not breakdown. This causes inhibition

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