Environmental Pollution In The Aquatic Environment

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Environmental pollution is one of the major problems in most of the countries all over the world. Water pollution appears to be occurred due to untreated sewage, animal waste, dead algae and so on. Large number of chemicals can contaminate environments and aquatic animals including fish and amphibians during their stage of development and throughout their adult life. Nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE) has been found in aquatic environments, particularly in river water due to humans’ activities as NPE is widely used in the manufacturing industries. In the aquatic environment, nonylphenol ethoxylate breaks down to 4-nonylphenol, which is more stable and persistent. Nonylphenol and its ethoxylates are not only acutely toxic to a wide variety of animals…show more content…
Hormonal balance of organisms has been recently raised growing concerns under the impact of endocrine disruptors chemicals (EDCs). Thyroid hormones had been used as a potential early biomarker for detecting the exposure of 4-nonylphenol in adult male Carassius auratus to different doses. Many studies have shown that exposure to EDCs can cause physiological, histological, and behavioral alterations in fish during reproductive…show more content…
The degree of DNA integrity has been proposed as a sensitive indicator of genotoxicity and as an effective biomarker for environment monitoring. However, there are still limited number of reports concerning the effects of 4-nonylphenol on genotoxicity, especially on aquatic organisms in the species African catfish. Among the current available technique for genotoxic damage detection is the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR), and it can detect DNA damage up to tissue level. Nonylphenol has been shown to cause histopathological changes in the germ and Sertoli cells of the male eelpout and the skin of Rainbow trout and thus histopathological alteration can be a biomarker to the effect of exposure to environmental stressors. African catfish C. gariepinus not only has its commercial importance as food but also has been used in fundamental researches and considered as an excellent model for toxicological studies. The present work has been undertaken to evaluate the adverse impact of different sublethal doses of 4-nonylphenol on some aspects of C. gariepinus such as hematological and biochemical parameters, histopathological changes in organ, gonadosomatic index and embryo

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