Celebrity Endorsement Effectiveness

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The several factors that influence the effectiveness of a communication, such as the reputation of the communicator and of the medium that the communicator employs, the receptivity and predispositions of the audience,…show more content…
Friedman and Friedman (1979) showed that celebrities have significant effects on attitudes toward the product and purchase intentions when they endorse products high in psychological or social risk, such as costume jewelry. They also found that celebrities are more effective than expert or typical-consumer endorsers in advertisement recall and brand name recall, regardless of the product type. Hoeke, and Moe (1989) showed that the brand attitudes and the purchase intentions are pretentious positively by the celebrity appeals. As showed, that the two-pronged of celebrity appeal performed by best and the one-sided is non-celebrity appeal performed worst in terms of attitudes toward the brand and purchase intentions. Ohanian (1991) provided an evidence for the effect of perceived expertise of the celebrity on purchase of intentions by using four different celebrities examined the effects of multiple product endorsements by celebrities and found that the number of products a celebrity endorses had negative impact on the consumers‟ perceptions of celebrity credibility, celebrity likeability, and attitude toward the ad. Bush, Martin, and Bush (2004) showed that celebrity sports athletes have a positive significant impact on adolescents‟ word-of-mouth intentions and brand loyalty. They also found…show more content…
Kelman (1961) claimed, by referring to the source attractiveness model, that celebrity endorsement leads to changes in consumer attitudes through an identification process, in which consumers establish an identity associated with the celebrity. Mowen (1980) used attribution theory to suggest that effectiveness of celebrity endorsements depends on the consumers‟ willingness to understand the causal reasons for a celebrity to endorse a product: if consumers think that the celebrity endorses the product because of the characteristics of the product, instead of some monetary incentives, then the celebrity endorsement will be more

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