American War Dbq

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Chapter 5 - The American Revolution The United States Began in 1775, and Am were unprepared Defining American War Aims After Lex and Con, 2nd Continental Congress met in the State House of Philly Disagree about reason of war. Group 1 = Get indep from Brit (Richard Henry Lee and Adams Cousins from VA). Group 2 = reforms to permit reconciliation w/ Eng (John Dickinson of PA). Most did middle ground. Olive Branch Petition - final appeasing appeal to king. Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms - was very antagonistic. Public first fought not for independence (more mellow), later changed reasons bc war cost too much for modest aims: anger of British employment of Indians, slaves, mercenaries, and bc Eng rebuffed Olive Branch…show more content…
July 2, 1776, Declaration of Independence - formal justification of actions of the delegates. Thomas Jefferson wrote most of it (helped by Ben Franklin and John Adams). 2 parts: 1) state John Locke’s social contract theory Life, Liberty, Property (Pursuit of Happiness) 2) King George III broke contract so no loyalty inspired French Declaration of the Rights of Man. Responses to Independence some happy, others disliked - Loyalists (Tories). colonies = States (became indep even before rev). States, by 1781, had written own Constitutions. Unsure whether to have central govt (or only state auth). 1777 - Articles of Confederation. War forced ppl to balance central power w/ state government. C Congress = main coordinator of war effort (limited power) Mobilizing for War New govt challenges: raising and supplying armies, gathering funds, no British markets = shortages, gunsmiths can’t keep up w/ demand. Congress created governmental arsenal in Springfield, Mass in 1777 relied heavily on captured weapons from Brit. and Euro weapons (from Fr) Fiscal problems: Congress = no power to tax ppl. States couldn’t provide $. Sold bonds, but never caught on. Issued paper money: inflation. Farmers/merchants preferred business w/ Brit who could pay in gold/silver. Govt borrowed $ from other…show more content…
The states persuaded, forced, & drafted. To solve this, 1775 - Congress made Continental army w/ 1 commander-in-chief, G Washington. Was popular & unanimously elected. Continental Congress messed w/ Washington's military operations instead of giving him supplies/manpower. Assisted by Marquis de Lafayette of Fr & Baron von Steuben of Prussia. The War for Independence Brit had all advantages. Am advt: fighting on own area, patriotism, 1777 - foreign aid. Am won bc: Brit mistakes w/ American fervor, foreign help, and a new type of warfare. The First Phase: New England (1775-1776) Britain was not sure if it was war at first. After Lex and Conc, Americans besieged General Thomas Gage’s army in Boston. Battle of Bunker Hill (Jun 1775) - many Am casualties and lost territ. but more Brits killed than any other war. In 1776, Brits understood that Boston = not best place for war bc middle of Patriotism; indefensible. Evacuation Day (March 17, 1776) - Brits cornered, kicked out of Boston War = inconclusive in South and Canada South In Feb 1776, Moore's Creek Bridge (NC) - Patriots destroyed Loyalist uprising. Discouraged Brit plan to invade South (Brit had expected Tory support)

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