Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy usually referred as Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS). MRS/NMR spectroscopy is a technique used to determine various metabolites. It can be performed in vivo as well as in vitro. A problem with in vivo NMR spectroscopy is recognizing individual metabolite contribution within the spectrum, at short echo time. Echo-planar- imaging termed as fast imaging is preferred for MRS. A chemical shift information is suitable for recognizing the singlet resonances, at any field strength. If a compound has multiplet resonances, then a priori information is acquired. Unless, a simplified spectral editing acquisition method is used, it would be hard to analyze compound that has multiplet resonances. Additionally,…show more content…
Ethanolamine concentration is 3.3 mmol/kgww, while PE is approximately 1.4 mmol/kgww. Glucose (Glc) acts as a major source of energy in the brain. Its concentration is around 1 mmol/kgww. The spectrum of a Glc comprise of multiple spectral patterns. Glutamate (Glu) is most abundant amino acid found in human brain that consists of a side chain. Glu has a value of 12 mmol/kgww. It is considered as an excitatory neurotransmitter. Since glutamate comprise of two methylene groups and a methine group. Consequently, it has a complex spectrum, thus resulting in low intensities of individual peaks irrespective of its abundance. Glutamine (Gln) which is an amino acid and a precursor of Glu is found in astrocytes. It ranges from 2-4mM. A tripeptide Glutathione (GSH) is a combination of glycine, cysteine, and glutamate, that exists in reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSH) form within a living systems. Glycerol, which is present within the membrane of a phospholipids is a major constituent of free glycerol and phospholipids. The spectrum encompasses doublet-of-doublets centered at 3.55 and 3.64 ppm, while multiplet ate 3.77 ppm. An amino acid Glycine (Gly) is an antioxidant and behaves as a neurotransmitter. It is discovered throughout the central nervous system and the brain. Its concentration is around 1 mmol/kgww. Histamine is an amino acid, that is a neurotransmitter as well as a neuromodulator. It is highly found in the hypothalamus, while it has low concentrations in the cerebellum. Its normal value is less than 0.1

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