Magnetic Resonance Imaging Essay

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-ionizing radiation modality that utilizes magnetic fields and radiofrequency (RF) waves to investigate the human body. Although MRI poses no radiation risks it is not without its own safety hazards relating to the effects of the static and vary magnetic fields within its boundaries as well as heating effects. MRI has developed rapidly over the recent years with a wide range of applications and the introduction of many different imaging techniques such as; diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), susceptibility weighting (SWI), functional imaging (fMRI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS). This report will attempt to take an in-depth look into MR angiography (MRA) and how it works. MRA is a specialized non-invasive technique that examines the vasculature of the human body and to evaluate them for abnormalities such as stenosis, occlusions and aneurysm.…show more content…
This technique is known as flow-independent angiography as it not affected by flow dynamics. Gd is a very toxic substance and is bound to a chelating ligand to help ensure the gadolinium remains inactive when administered to a patient and can easily be excreted thereafter by the kidneys. This type of MRA technique employs the use of 3D (volume) gradient echoes and T1 sequences to acquire high signal to nose ratio (SNR) of moving spins (high magnitude of magnetization) within the blood and suppress the signal from stationary spins (low magnitude of magnetization) in immobile tissue. Some common parameters used in CE-MRA; TRs (< 6 ms), TEs (< 2 ms), flip angle (15 -50 o) (Westbrook et al. 2011) (Hashemi et al. 2010) (Jewells & Castillo 2003) (Kim et al.

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