NGO Management In Pakistan

1000 Words4 Pages
1.0 Introduction Under the overarching subject of successful organizational management, various models and theories had been formulated when it comes to NGO management and the critical role that employees’ engagement played in this area. In resource-constrained developing nations like Pakistan, and various other developing south Asian states, the growth of NGO sector had seen dramatic growth over the past few decades and had now prolonged over various proportions when it comes to both public and private sectors. Despite this development the NGO sector in Pakistan sustained to face challenges and pressures from both inside the organizational structure coupled with external factors. The exterior factors that influenced an NGO’s structure and…show more content…
As per an SPDC (Social Policy and Development Centre) study conducted in 2001-2002 the highest percentage of Non-Profit and Non-governmental organizations in Pakistan were reported to have services in education and research, while fewer percentages of institutions were seen working in the sectors of public health, civil rights and in lobbying for civic amenities(SPDC 2002). Alongside these social activities the NGO sector also played a significant role as an economic force in a developing country like Pakistan. This being the case, as strong trends of both paid employment and volunteerism were seen in varying degrees under different realms of these welfare…show more content…
According to the theory, the presence of motivator or intrinsic factors, such as achievement and recognition, produced job satisfaction, whereas, the absence of hygiene or extrinsic factors, such as pay and job security, created job dissatisfaction. Work and Motivation (Vroon, 1964) presented the expectancy theory of employee motivation. The theory was based on the belief that employee effort would lead to performance which in turn would lead to rewards. Rewards might be either positive or negative. The likelihood of highly motivated employees was directly proportionate to the positivity and negativity of the rewards. John Stacey Adams, a workplace psychologist, presented the equity theory of motivation in1963. The theory stated that an employee strives for equity between himself and other workers. Equity was achieved when the ratio of employee outcomes over inputs was equal to other employees’ outcomes over inputs (Adams, 1965). In conjunction with this theory, Skinner's theory emphasised that employees’ behaviours which leaded to positive outcomes would be repeated and behaviours that leaded to negative outcomes would not be repeated‖ (Skinner, 1953). Managers should therefore positively reinforce employee behaviours that leaded to positive outcomes and negatively reinforce employee behaviours that leaded to negative

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