How Did Greek Influence Athena

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Abstract Rome experienced many changes during the Republic Period. The third century brought Greek settlers to Rome. The arrival of new influences began the new way of Roman living. Greek beliefs and traditions integrated with Rome’s current lifestyle. The Greek, starting from the third century, heavily influenced Rome’s culture. Keywords: Rome, Greek, Influence 1. Introduction Prometheus creating man, guided by Athena is a marble relief carving on a sarcophagus from third century CE. The sarcophagus from Rome, Italy appears to be in fair condition. There are minor blemishes on the sarcophagus. A few of the limbs of the figures are missing, and the figure to the far right lacks a nose due to chipping. The carved cloth adorning each figure…show more content…
Realism does not appear to be essential for the relief carving. The faces of all the figures do not have natural looking features. The heads of the smaller figures are too large for their bodies. Individualism and realism did not prosper until later Italian sculptures. Art work from Rome exhibits influence from Greek art. A cloth covers Prometheus in the relief carving. Athena appears in full armor because she is a goddess of war. The woven basket to the left of Prometheus relates to Athena. Athena is known for having a talent in weaving. These two myths have been carved in the sarcophagus because Prometheus created men, and the goddess of art, Athena, guides him with her knowledge. Athena appears to be holding a butterfly over Prometheus’ creation. Butterflies symbolize the soul and destiny. An owl hides beside Athena. Athena was commonly accompanied by an owl in mythology. These two myths symbolize life. Keeping the spirit and memory of someone alive who had passed was crucial for Romans in ancient times. The sarcophagus presumably belonged to someone of wealth based on the craftsmanship and material…show more content…
The Romans would go to great extents to ensure peace for the souls of those who died. It was believed that a soul would haunt its home, and could not find happiness after death until all burial rituals had been completed. Three handfuls of dust scattered over a body unable to receive a proper ceremonial burial, provided happiness to the spirit. Funeral ceremonials were extensive for the Romans. However, vivid details are not clear about funeral ceremonies because of lack of records. The Roman’s respect for the dead and belief in spirits are evident in their funeral customs. Once dead, the body would be prepared for burial or cremation by being washed, anointed, and dressed in a toga. The body would then be laid out in an atrium surrounded by flowers and burning incense while awaiting embalmment and the funeral. If the funeral was for a man of power, the funeral would be elaborate with display and include the attendance of many. Burials took place at night; class did not affect this. Burials were a tradition to the ancient Romans, until hygienic reasons made cremation more common among citizens. However, a number of families in Rome continued burial customs because of tradition, and the lower class could not afford cremation. Ustrinae , places bodies were burned, and burials were not permitted in the city limits. Tombs could be found along the roads and outskirts of Rome. Tombs were public memorials built on a plot of

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