Helicobacter Pylori Literature Review

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ABSTRACT Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori has become an issue of concern due to its eradication failures. This paper is a literature review of the ultra structure and morphology of the bacteria and how it develops resistance to antibiotics such as clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin and levofloxacin. It also reviews the action of these antibiotics and their prevalence rate of resistance to Helicobacter pylori. INTRODUCTION Helicobacter pylori known previously as Campylobacter pylori, is a Gram-negative bacteria mostly found in the stomach of humans. The bacterium is usually asymptomatic and is part of the normal flora of the stomach. In 1982, two Australian scientists Barry Marshall and Robin Warren discovered this bacterium.…show more content…
They are gram-negative non-spore-forming bacteria. The cellular morphology may be spiral, curved or fusiform between 0.2 to 1.2 μm in diameter and 1.5 to 10.0 μm in length. The spiral wavelength may differ with the growth conditions, the age and the species identity of the cells.2 The bacteriology of this microaerophilic spiral-shaped bacterium is fascinating. Helicobacter pylori are a member of a fast growing genus. New species of Helicobacter are being isolated from non-gastric sites in humans and may be implicated in diseases that previously had no known etiologic agent. Helicobacter pylori have a tuft of polar-sheathed flagella with terminal bulbs making them motile and more adapted to movement through mucus. The bacterium has on its surface lipopolysaccharides which have unique biological properties and a peptidoglycan structure that differs from other gram-negative bacteria.3 Antibiotic resistance is when antibiotics lose their ability to effectively control or kill bacterial growth. The bacteria begins to grow exponentially even with the presence of antibiotics. Bacteria like Helicobacter pylori have amazing 'equipment' of biochemical and genetic mechanisms to ensure evolution and spread of antibacterial resistance genes.4 The three fundamental mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance…show more content…
Changes in membrane permeability to antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance can either be plasmid mediated or maintained on the bacterial chromosome.5 The issue of antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori is of particular concern and has become an important factor leading to eradication failure. Helicobacter pylori are the main cause of peptic ulcer disease and also implicated in the development of gastric cancer. Helicobacter pylori infection is however curable with different regimens of antimicrobial agents. Clarithromycin, Metronidazole, Amoxicillin and Levofloxacin are antibiotics that are used in different regimes to combat the effects and actions of H. pylori. Used as a mono therapy, most of these antibiotics become ineffective in killing bacteria growth. These antibiotics are therefore not used individually but are combined in multiple (double, triple and quadruple) therapy treatments. 6 This paper seeks to look at the morphology and ultra structure of Helicobacter pylori in relation to antibiotic resistance. The paper will also look at the development of resistance and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori to antibiotics such as clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin and levofloxacin which are used in different regimes in the killing or controlling the bacteria

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