Ground Water Literature Review

754 Words4 Pages
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1HYDROCHEMISTRY Groundwater been the precious natural resources about 7 x1012 m3 of water is drawn from the world’s aquifers each year, ground water is by weight the most extracted raw material (Jean-Claude, 1995). As a resultant of all the processes and reactions that act on water from the moment it condenses in the atmosphere to final consumer determine the quality of groundwater extracted. Generally, the movement of groundwater below the ground surface along its path increases the concentration of chemical species. Hence, groundwater chemistry could reveal important information on the geological history of the aquifers, the recharge, and suitability of groundwater for domestic, industrial and agricultural…show more content…
Some of these natural factors that control the chemical composition of surface and groundwater include the mineralogy of watershed, aquifers composition, precipitation, climate and topography. These processes are group by gibbs as evaporation dominance, rock dominance and precipitation dominance which combined variously to create water types that change spatially and or temporally (Yidana et al., 2007). Groundwater quality assessment is investigated based on its chemistry. Studies on groundwater quality for domestic purposes is carried out by comparing selected parameters with WHO guide values and agricultural purposes by determining carbonates and sodium contend (discussed by Eaton (1950). Diagrams for utility purpose were developed by USSL (1954) and Doneen (1948) including permeability plots, by Craig and Anderson1979; Early studies of water quality were carried out by Davis and Dewiest (1966). The quality of crops production, maintenance of soil productivity, and protection of the environment depend on the quality of irrigation water used. Therefore Criteria such as Salinity hazard, Sodium hazard/Sodicity, pH, Alkalinity, Specific conductance have been used to describe effects of irrigation water on crop production and soil quality (Bauder et al.,…show more content…
Similar work on Hydrogeochemical evaluation of ground water are study in detail in other of the world by Back and Hanshaw (1965), Collins (1975),Johnson (1975), Mason Moore (1985), Sastri and Lawrence (1988), Stuyfzand(1989), and Lavitt and others (1997). Acheampong and Hess (1998), yidana et al.,(2008) studies suggested that the factor controlling groundwater chemistry within the southern voltaian basin and the afram plains are weathering of albitic feldspars and silicate minerals respectively. For example, with the used of mass balance and multivariate Techniques, Yidana et al. (2008) identify silicate mineral weathering as the primary control on the hydrochemistry of groundwater from the Afram Plains area. Mineral weathering and rainfall were revealed to be main factor controlling water chemistry within the crystalline basin in gushesgu district salifu et al. (2014). By using hydrochemical data to plot Gibbs diagram most of the sample fall with the rock dominance and few on

More about Ground Water Literature Review

Open Document