Gamification In Game Based Learning

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Conceptualizing Gamification There is no consensus on the definition of gamification among researchers, nor is there an agreement on the difference between game-based learning (GBL) and gamification. Kapp (2012) discussed the definition of gamification in a pedagogical context contrasting it to game-based learning (GBL). Based on Kapp’s view, the instructional strategy is changed to accommodate game elements where, instead of the learning objectives, the teacher in a gamified classroom will present a challenge or quest that the players will need to undertake leading them to the learning experience. Sixteen research articles defined gamification as the use of game elements, mechanics, features, design, and structure in a non-game environment…show more content…
There are some defintions where the pedagogical applications of gamification are emphasized. Kingsley and Grabners (2015) posited that gamification should be understood as a combination of “content area instruction, literacy, and 21st century learning skills in a highly-engaging learning environment” (p. 51). In the eyes of Hamari, Koivisto, and Sarsa (2014), gamification becomes more complex with specific focus on “motivational affordances” and change in behavior as an outcome (p. 3026). Folmar’s (2015) characterization of gamification captured an important idea in the application of gamification in learning and other fields: game thinking. He understood gamification as the use of game thinking and game mechanics for non-game purposes. Zichermann (2010) considered the lack of game thinking when using gamification in an educational context as the chief reason for its occasional failure in different contexts. Game thinking, Folmar (2015) explained, mandates rethinking teaching practices, not just adding game elements without considering how gamification…show more content…
Motivation and engagement, as a major focus of this study, are at the heart of self-determination theory of human motivation. Self-determination theory (SDT) rests on the three principles of autonomy, competence, and relatedness (Deci & Ryan, 2008; Seaborn & Fels, 2015). According to Baard, Deci, and Ryan (2004), competence is connected to the motivation to overcome challenges and achieve success. The need for autonomy, they added, relates to volition and choice-making in pursuing and being responsible for one’s actions. The need for relatedness, they elaborated, is about social status and a connection with others based on mutual respect and interdependence. The three elements of SDT constitute human psychological needs to make choices, to compete and collaborate with others; all of which can be afforded in the gamified

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