Four Major Types Of Biological Molecules

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Biological Molecules Biological molecules (also known as biomolecules) are molecules that are created by living organisms; they are amply found in living organisms and are fundamental for life. They are also frequently referred to as macromolecules or biopolymers. There are 4 major types of biological molecules: • Carbohydrates • Lipids (fats) • Proteins • Nucleic Acids Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are huge biological molecules, or macromolecules, consisting of Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O) atoms. They are a source of energy, when carbohydrates are consumed, our bodies converts carbohydrates into sugars in the form of glucose, which is then used as an energy source by cells in the Human body. Carbohydrates make up roughly 1/10 of…show more content…
They are a type of lipid that surrounds every cell in the body. Phospholipids consist of a hydrophilic (the part of the lipid that ‘likes’ water) head and a hydrophobic (part of the lipid that ‘hates’ water) tail. Phospholipids position themselves into two parallel layers, known as a phospholipid bilayer. This bilayer forms a cell’s membrane and is essential to a cell's capabilities. Phospholipids are almost structurally identical to that of the triglyceride, because they contain a glycerol molecule that is joined to a fatty acid molecule via a condensation reaction, which produce ester bonds, but a phosphate group is joined via a condensation reaction to form a covalent bond to the 3rd hydroxyl group instead of another fatty acid molecule, the chemical structure of this is shown in the diagram on the right. Consequently the phospholipid comprises of 2 parts, the hydrophilic head, which is the phosphate part of the phospholipid molecule, and the hydrophobic tail which is the fatty acid (hydrocarbon chain). So if you put an amount of phospholipids in water the phospholipids will form a bilayer, this is when the phosphate head (part that likes water) are in the water and the fatty acid chain/hydrophobic tail (part that hates water) are sticking out away from the water. 2 of these create the bilayer, ultimately to protect the fatty acid from the

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