Essential Oil Research Paper

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Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils (EO) Essential oils are mixtures of more than 200 components, normally mixtures of terpenes or phenylpropanic derivatives, in which the chemical and structural differences between compounds are minimal. They can be essentially classified into two groups: Volatile components: Volatile components of EO comprises 90–95% of the oil in weight, mainly monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, as well as their oxygenated derivatives along with alcohols, aliphatic aldehydes and esters. Nonvolatile residue: That comprises 1–10% of the oil, containing hydrocarbons, fatty acids, carotenoids, sterols, flavonoids and waxes. Hydrocarbon: Essential Oils consist of chemical compounds that have hydrogen and carbon as their building blocks. Basic Hydrocarbon found in plants is isoprene having the following structure. (Isoprene) Terpenes: Terpenes are cyclic molecule having the formula C10H16. Examples: Limonene, Camphene, Pinene, etc. Terpenes are anti-inflammatory, bactericidal, antiviral, and antiseptic. Terpenes are classified into monoterpenes, diterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Monoterpenes are a class of terpenes that consist of two isoprene units.…show more content…
Moreover, besides being linear derivatives (Geraniol, Citronellol), the monoterpenes can be cyclic molecules (Menthol – Monocyclic; Camphor – bicyclic; Pinenes (α and β) – Pine genera as well. Borneol, derived from pine oil, is used as a disinfectant and deodorant. Camphor is used as a counterirritant, expectorant, anesthetic, and antipruritic among many other uses. Thujone (a monoterpene) is the toxic agent found in Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) from which the liqueur, absinthe, is made. Borneol and camphor are two common

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