Banking Sector Reforms In India

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“A Study on Banking Sector Reforms in India Opportunity and Challenges) ” Abstract: The economic reforms lead by the Government of India about 2 decades before have changed the landscape of various sectors of the Indian economy. The Indian banking sector is no special case. This sector is going through major changes as a outcome of economic growth. The role of banking industry is very vital as one of the leading and mostly essential service sector. India is the biggest economy in the world having more than 129 crore population. Today in India the service sector is granting half of the Indian GDP and the banking is most popular service sector in India. The significant role of banking industry is necessary to speed up the social economic…show more content…
The East India Company founded The Bank of Bengal/Calcutta (1809), Bank of Bombay (1840) and Bank of Madras (1843). The next bank was Bank of Hindustan which was founded in 1870. These three individual units (Bank of Calcutta, Bank of Bombay, and Bank of Madras) were called as Presidency Banks. Allahabad Bank which was started in 1865, was for the first time completely run by Indians. Punjab National Bank Ltd. was set up in 1894 with headquarters at Lahore. Between 1906 and 1913, Bank of India, Central Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Canara Bank, Indian Bank, and Bank of Mysore were set up. In 1921, all presidency banks were merged to 22 forms the Imperial Bank of India which was run by European Shareholders. After that the Reserve Bank of India was started in April…show more content…
1955: Nationalisation of State Bank of India. 1959: Nationalization of SBI subsidiaries. 1961: Insurance cover extended to deposits. 1969: Nationalisation of 14 major Banks. 1971: Creation of credit guarantee corporation. 1975: Creation of regional rural banks. 1980: Nationalisation of seven banks with deposits over 200 Crores. Phases of Evolution of Indian Banking Industry In the evolution of this strategic industry spanning over two centuries, immense developments have been made in terms of the regulations governing it, the ownership structure, products and services offered and the technology deployed. The entire evolution can be classified into four distinct phases. • Phase I- Pre-Nationalisation Phase (prior to 1955) • Phase II- Era of Nationalisation and Consolidation (1955-1990) • Phase III- Introduction of Indian Financial & Banking Sector Reforms and Partial Liberalisation (1990-2004) • Phase IV- Period of Increased Liberalisation (2004 onwards) Structure of the Organised Banking

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