Annotated Bibliography

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Callan, Roger J. "Tipping Behaviour in Hospitality Embodying a Comparative Prolegomenon of English and Italian Customers." Jstor. N.p., 28 Sept. 2015. Web. This scholarly paper written by Roger Callan and Kirstie Tyson starts out by definition of tipping, and provides historical perspective of it. Author’s goal is to explain the difference of tipping habits in England and other nations – mainly they compare to that of Italy. Throughout the paper, the author provides comparative study of restaurant customers’ tipping behavior in England and Italy. According to the study in the paper, Italians rated the server (such as his/her attractiveness, how fast she serves the food/bill) as influencing factor of tip size, while English customers generally…show more content…
No tipping can “simplify the bookkeeping” and close the “gap between those who prepare the food and those who serve it”. Since tipping has been a confusing jumble of federal, state, and local tax laws, eliminating it could definitely make managers’ job easier. Many restaurants are still waiting on elimination of tips because they “fear backlash from their customers”. They fear that number of diners will reduce by significantly higher food cost, not realizing that it includes the service fee. This article is credible because it includes many interviews from people with various perspectives about this trend. In my Argument of Inquiry, I will be writing about what kind of moves Americans can take to deal with rising hot issue of “tipping custom”. This article gives many perspectives on a way out of tipping issue so it will be helpful for…show more content…
In Taiwan, tipping for service did not really existed until recent years. However, as number of American diner increases in Taiwan, the idea of tipping has increased too. In order to fulfill his goal of examination, Lin set up two tests – one is Manova and the other as Anova. Manova is where he collects perceived fairness, distributive justice, and perceived controls of employees from Taiwan and United States as dependent variables from five tipping scenarios. Anova is an experiment where author tests for each dependent variable to test his hypotheses. The data gained from employees of two countries provides insight into what employees in different countries perceive as fairness in tipping. In my Argument of Inquiry, I will be heavily discussing on the different perceptions on tipping custom across countries. Such insight can help me out very much. Lin’s research is credible because he not only includes many data sets, but also compares this research from the same research from the past in

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