Written Corrective Feedback Literature Review

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Chapter Two: Literature review Introduction English as a second or foreign language has gained much attention during the past decades in almost every country. In Iran English is taught as a foreign language in high-schools as well as in universities (Mirdehghan, HoseiniKargar, Navab, & Mahmoodi, 2011). Aside from different language courses presented in different levels of public academic centers, there are also private institutes that teach different levels of foreign language. As a branch of English language teaching, English for specific purposes (ESP) has gained much attention during recent years (Johns, 2013; Sarem, Hamidi, & Mahmoudie, 2013; Zaki, 2007). Primarily ESP was divided into English for science and technology…show more content…
Feedback, in a broad sense, is conceptualized as information provided by an agent (e.g., teacher, peer, book, parent, self, experience) regarding aspects of one’s performance or understanding (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). Feedback, in general, can take various forms, one of which is known as corrective feedback. Put in general terms, written corrective feedback aims at providing information as to the correctness or incorrectness of what is written versus well-established language conventions. In contrast to written corrective feedback, other types of feedback address different aspects and/or features of writing than correctness or incorrectness. In the case of argumentative writing, for instance, feedback may be provided in the form of suggestions for possible improvements. As a case in point, a writing instructor could suggest that student writers strengthen their arguments by adding supportive evidence. Similarly, feedback could be given by raising questions, thus attempting to help a student writer to further develop ideas as in "Can you think of a more cost-effective way of dealing with the problem of air pollution in metropolitan cities?" Although the provision of written corrective feedback has long been deemed integral to FL/SL writing instruction programs, it has not always been provided in the same manner, i.e., various writing instructors have opted for varied written corrective…show more content…
140). To formulate new ideas would be a difficult task because it involves transforming of information or reworking it, which is much more complicated than writing itself. When the writer puts the concepts together, he/she engages in "a two-way interaction between continuously developing knowledge and continuously developing text" (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1987, p. 12). Compared to writing in native language, writing in second language acquires proficiency in the use of the language, as well as writing strategies, techniques and skills. Besides its significant contribution to second language acquisition (SLA), writing plays a substantial communicative role in academic contexts. Writing is an essential part of thinking and learning in school contexts, particularly in light of 21st Century demands (Johannessen, 2001). Hence, it seems if the students can present concepts and ideas through their writing, they would be more successful in academic and professional fields. B. Technology and Second Language Writing Time has now changed. English writing teachers are better prepared and students are more aware of the writing required in school setting. As English second language research and practices have developed, many techniques and methods have proved successful in English L2 writing classrooms: ( “Careful needs analysis to

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