Water Pollution Solution

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION All living organisms on the earth depend on water. It is also most common universal solvent and coolant for industrial and domestic applications. It is the key to socio economic development of the country. About 70 percent of the total water available on earth is fresh water. Out of this , only 1 percent is accessible as surface freshwater while the rest 2 percent is locked away in the form of ice caps and glaciers in the Polar Regions, for distant from human habitation. The availability of water is governed by hydrological cycle. Water pollution increased due to industrial activities, growth of population and increasing requirement of water for the agricultural sector have…show more content…
The average amount of fresh water per capita may still be enough to meet human needs, if it is properly distributed. But equitable distribution is not possible due to mainly two reasons. The first is: two-thirds of the global population (around 4 billion) lives in areas receiving only one- fourth of the global annual rainfall and the second is that the rainfall is not uniform through out the seasons and from year to year. Supply of potable water to all is the biggest challenge before the world today. Limited resources have resulted in water shortage in 88 developing countries across the world containing 50% of the world’s population. Further water supply in these countries cannot meet urban and industrial development needs as well as associated changes in…show more content…
Even with the loss of one percent fluid, human feels thirsty and with near 10 percent loss, there is risk of death (Glieck (1996)). Without water, survival of human life is impossible. Use of poor quality water in developing countries causes 80-90% of all the diseases and 30% out of it to deaths. The water contaminants may comprise suspended solids, dissolved solids and microbes which may be disease causing. In the present work the focus is on dissolved solids such as salinity which may be present at high concentration and also other toxic chemicals which even in very low concentrations affect health. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) below 500 ppm is recommended as safe by Bureau of India Standards (BIS). The Fluoride content in drinking water should be 1-1.5 ppm. Fluoride which is a dissolved impurity, even with very less percentage may cause fluorosis. Similarly, toxicants such as Arsenic, Cadmium, Cyanide, Lead and Selenium can be tolerated only in the fractional ppm range (0.01-0.05 ppm) and mercury upto 0.001 ppm. Arsenic is a unique human carcinogen in that case; it causes lung cancer by exposure through ingestion (through drinking water) as well as through inhalation. A major increase in the number of disease would be caused by arsenic if the population continues to drink arsenic-contaminated water in Bangladesh and in Bengal in India. General health is affected due to different chemicals contaminants

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