Vikings Influence On The English

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Abstract The Vikings invaded the British Isles during the late eighth century. They remained for the next 300 years. Despite having been such a dominant force they left behind little physical evidence of their reign until research successfully stablished definite connections between the Vikings language and the English language of the time. The Vikings spoke a language called ‘Old Norse’. Old Norse and Old English were similar in many ways as they belonged to the same language family, a proto-indo European language. Therefore, the Old Norse was able to be integrated with relative ease into Old English. Their influence extends past loan words and encompasses grammar, syntax. This paper highlights the influence of the Vikings on the English…show more content…
The relationship between the two languages is subject to supposition, because the Vikings integrated into a day-to-day lifestyle they gave they gave us their names for everyday objects, such as Knife. The Vikings brought with words associated with animals for instance, the reindeer, an alien breed to the British Isles, which they called hreindyri. Adjectives to describe their new homeland. Many of the words to describe the swamp and flat plain landscape; words dirt, muck, mire and dregs (sediment) still survive. Due to their warring and violent nature, we gain a lot of associated words, such as berserk or berserker from berserkr lit. ‘bear shirt’, club – klubba and slaughter – slatra. Also due to their seafaring nature, OE gained words associated with the new developments in boat building technology of the time, such words as in some cases, the OE and the ON word coexisted alongside each other, with one of them taking on a slightly different meaning. The native word scyrte has become shirt in Modern English; the sc prefix in Old English was pronounced as ‘sh’. The Norse word, skyrta, developed into skirt. The original meaning was probably 'a short piece of clothing.' (Baugh & Cable, 1951) Test of…show more content…
"the Scandinavian influence not only affected the vocabulary but also extended to [...] syntax" (Baugh & Cable, 1951). Whoever, they do suggest that "it is less capable of exact demonstration", but then conclude that "it is hardly to be doubted". Kirch (503), that all of the previous claims made about the influence of Scandinavian on English syntax are "the subject of much controversy". It was considered that these syntactic features originated from Scandinavian: "(1) relative clauses without pronouns, (2) the omission of the conjunction 'that,' (3) the use of 'shall' and 'will' in Middle English, (4) the genitive before nouns" (Kirch 503). But Kirch (503-510) refutes the quoted features and concludes that the "investigation turns up no positive proof of Scandinavian influence on English syntax" (510).(Essays, UK,

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