Theories Of Criminology

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Simply put, crime is any form of behaviour prohibited by law. According to a recent CBC news article, violent crime in Winnipeg is on the rise, with an eight percent increase compared to 2016. Police are dealing with gangs and drugs on a daily basis, which is an area of great concern for Winnipeg residents (CBC News, 2017). Criminology is the scientific study of criminals and their crimes. Criminologists study the causes of crime, the social impact of crime, and the criminals who are involved in crime, all from a social perspective. Their work focuses on the different social reactions to crime, the political terrain of social control, and the effectiveness of anti-crime policies. Criminologists then propose theories, attempting to explain the…show more content…
The study of criminology dates back to the 18th century, when scholars attempted to distinguish the relationship between crime and sin, by examining the reasons for the commission of crime. In the 19th century, criminology became popularized, and recognized as part of the study of sociology, psychology and economics. By the 20th century, criminology began to pull away from these other studies and became recognized as a separate social science. (Detective Edu, 2018). There are three main theories of criminology that help explain why criminals do what they do (Detective Edu, 2018). The first theory, known as the Classical Theory, suggests that people commit crimes when they feel that the benefits of the crime are greater than the costs. Theorists that believe in this theory believe that reducing crime involves giving out harsher punishments. The second theory of criminology is the Positivist Theory, which focuses on the internal and external factors that play a role in determining criminal behaviour. Positivists say that to reduce crime, provide those with a low socioeconomic status with more educational and employment…show more content…
In 2014, males accounted for 73 percent of all arrestees in the United States, and 80 percent of those arrested for violent crimes (Futurelearn). This distinction holds throughout history, for all societies, all groups of people and for nearly every crime category, except for prostitution (encyclopedia). Although males have greater involvement in criminal behaviour, it is still important to understand why women commit less crime. There is a gene called the Monoamine Oxidase A gene (MAOA), also referred to as the “warrior gene” that men are more likely than women to carry, which, when combined with other factors, can lead to increased aggression and violence (Splinter News). Statistics show that 83 percent of children who are abused and carry the MAOA gene end up with the aggression problems. In addition, certain mental disabilities including antisocial personality disorders are also more common in men, which contribute to aggression issues later in life (Splinter

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