Intervention of vaccines in medical field proved to be one of the most successful ways to fight against infectious diseases. In order to develop an effective vaccine several elements must be considered cautiously by researchers such as antigen must rapidly induce the immune response also the presentation of antigens in the vaccine must be presented well to produce a productive immune system.
Hence, to improve the effectiveness of the vaccine, the inclusion of adjuvant is crucially needed which can cause a robust and long lasting immune response to fight against the infections of microorganisms. Adjuvant is used to enlarge the effect of a vaccine by stimulating the immune system to respond to the vaccine, more vigorously, and thus providing increased immunity to a particular disease. Microorganisms such as bacteria found naturally exist in the human body which known as good bacteria is one of the types of adjuvant used in the vaccine. Specifically, microbiota (microbial flora) that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of human body can be used as an adjuvant in the formulation of vaccines. Perhaps their natural existence help to improve…show more content… Based from the percentage, it is estimated that more than 70% of immune cells are at the gut level specifically at the small intestine where all the nutrients and minerals were digested and absorbed. However the consequences may be local and will be limited only there is stimulation of gut immunity. For examples, stimulations of secretory IgA production or systemic immunity as the effect of the immune responses. Probiotic bacteria can perfomed whatever mode of action they want , either: first, their structures such as DNA (by using CpG motifs), second using their peptidoglycan, LPS, flagellin; and/or their metabolites (example short-chain fatty acids). Thus this is how basically probiotics perform their function in the human