# Stroke Engine Literature Review

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Chapter Literature Review Engines The 1876 four stroke engine developed by Nikolous Otto in Germany was the rebellion for internal combustion engines. This development was based on the Otto cycle. Five years later the two stroke engine was developed in Scotland by Dugald Clerke. Since then internal combustion engines has been the spot of interest for engines. (app thermodynamics) Types of engines This project basically study two stroke internal combustion engines. But to understand the classification of engines it is important to see the types. (a) Based on number of strokes: (i) Two stroke engines (ii) Four stroke engines (b) Based on thermodynamic cycle: In this case we classify them based on the thermodynamic cycle they use. So we…show more content…
Air to fuel ratio can be described by three terms named by Stoichiometry, Lean and Rich mixture. When we say a mixture is stoichiometry mixture that means there is enough amount of air for all the carbons and hydrogens of the fuel. And when we say a mixture is lean there is more air than the accurate stoichiometry amount and less fuel. Rich mixture is a mixture with more fuel and less air. Lambda The amount (or deficiency) of air relative to a stoichiometric mixture is given by lambda. It is the ratio of the actual air to fuel ratio (A/F) to the stoichiometric air to fuel ratio (A/F)s. λ= ((A⁄F))/((〖A⁄F)〗_s ) When all the oxygen is used for oxidizing the fuel in the cylinder the value of lambda is 1.0. The proportions of air and fuel must fall within limits, and the timing of the spark can have a significant effect on the efficiency and energy release of the combustion process.[ Travis Don Husaboe, thesis] Table 2. Common air-fuel ratios for automotive operation (from Hartman [21]) Condition AFR Rich burn limit at normal operating temperature 6.0 Approximate Rich best torque at WOT…show more content…
For different atmospheric pressure the amount of oxygen differs. This leads to a difference in the mass of air in the combustion chamber. Atmospheric pressure and the mass of oxidizer in the air are directly proportional to each other. The density of air at a given atmospheric pressure is given by ρ=P/(R_s T) For an ideal gas where P is the absolute pressure, R is the gas constant, and T is the temperature. The volume (V) occupied by n moles of any gas has a pressure (P) at temperature (T) in Kelvin. The relationship for these variables, What we can understand from this is that the concentration of air in a given volume increases when the atmospheric pressure increases. These leads us to more mass of air into the cylinder and more fuel to burn. [Steven C Crosbie, Captain, USAF thesis2] on his thesis tried to show the effect of pressure change on engine performance Figure 4Power curve on an engine with different