Osteoarthritis Research Paper

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Introduction Osteoarthritis is a progressively degenerative joint disease that affects more than half of the population by age 65 and roughly 80% of people by age 75.1,2 It is the most common musculoskeletal disease and the most common joint disorder in the world.1,3 Osteoarthritis is classified as a total joint disease that affects the hyaline (articular) cartilage, the synovial lining, and progressively the underlying bone as well as the supporting ligaments of the involved joint. The articular cartilage found between bones functions to provide lubrication, shock absorption, mechanical support, and nutrition contributing to overall joint health. In the pathological process of osteoarthritis, the articular cartilage begins to break down…show more content…
The scale ranges from grade 0 to grade 4, with a grade of 4 being the most severe. Grade 0 indicates there are no radiologic osteoarthritis features. Grade 1 severity shows minimal osteophyte formation. Grade 2 shows definite osteophyte formation without impaired joint space. Grade 3 indicates there is a moderately decreased joint space, and grade 4 shows a severely impaired joint space with sclerosis of the underlying bone. The most commonly affected areas include the hands, the knees, the hips, the spine, and the…show more content…
Fluid within the articular cartilage accounts for up to 80% of the entire weight, and provides lubrication and opposition against friction. Collagen is the second most numerous structure by weight within articular cartilage and functions to provide the cartilage with tensile strength. Type II collagen is by far the most numerous type, accounting for 90-95% of the total collagen within the extracellular matrix and articular cartilage. Proteoglycans are next in abundance after collagen. They are constructed and released into the extracellular matrix by the chondrocytes. Aggrecan, the most numerous and largest proteoglycan within articular cartilage, functions to react with hyaluronan, forming large molecules that play an essential role in the osmotic properties of articular cartilage. It is the osmotic capabilities of the articular cartilage that keep it hydrated and able to withstand compressive forces without

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