Literature Review Of Related Literature About Banana Leaves

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Related Literature The papermaking process is complicated and has far-reaching environmental impacts further than the simple paper production process, which itself is toxic, resource intensive, and uses chemicals and pollutants that generates major health issues and environmental degradation. Metaphorically speaking, the deforestation is required to obtain paper pulp and the disposal of paper waste products are major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. Smith(2011) emphasized “ the disposal of vast amounts of discarded paper products generates another set of environmental problems Paper in landfills creates methane as it decomposes, and it is estimated that 25 percent of all landfill…show more content…
Pseudostems contain mostly water (92-95%) and very little protein (3-4.5% DM). Fibre content is high, in the 50-70% DM range for NDF and about 30-40% DM for ADF. There are significant differences in degradability and digestibility between banana leaves and pseudostems. Unlike other plants, the digestibility of stems is higher (75%) than that of leaves (65%) and OM and DM disappearance follow the same pattern. The probable explanation is that the erectness of pseudostems is achieved by the way in which water is held in the cells, and not by the presence of high levels of lignin in the cell wall. The high tannin content of leaves may also explain their lower digestibility (Marie-Magdeleine, et al.,…show more content…
Paradisiacal normalis, M. sapien-tum and M. cavendishi as well as the length, width, and thickness of the leaf and the number, diameter, and tensile strength of leaf fibers. Samples were collected in Dampit, Wajak and Batu, Malang. Indonesia. The criteria for leaf samples were that they were fresh, mature, and not torn. Microscope slides used for anatomical observations were pre-pared using a semi-permanent method. The Retting method was applied to extract the fibers, and fiber strength was measured using a tensile strength tester. One way Anova and the Duncan test were used to establish the mean and other parameters of the dependent variables (length-, width-, thick-leaf; number-, diameter-, and tensile strength of fiber). The T-test (independent sample) was used to determine the mean diameter of fiber in adaxial and abaxial sites. The results showed that M. Brachycarpa had the highest number of fiber cells, a wider diameter fiber, and more adaxial fiber cells than the abaxial site. The diameter of fibers was 5 - 6 μm. M. sapietum had the longest and widest leaves and leaf thickness was highest in M. Paradisiaca. The tensile strength values ranged from 35 × 10−4 - 48 × 10−4 MPa. The tensile strength of the observed species did not differ

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