Literature Review: Biodiesel And Its Environments

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CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 BIODIESEL AND ITS PROPERTIES Carini and Hogan’s study (as cited in Patton, 2002) OR “… origins of neuralgia” (Carini and Hogan, as cited in Patton, 2002, p. 2154) Biodiesel is a renewable, reduces the emission of some pollutants (Dinkov et al., 2008), and environmentally friendly alternative to mineral diesel fuel (Lam et al., as cited in Dinkov et al., 2008). Biodiesel is also non-flammable, non-explosive, biodegradable and nontoxic compared to mineral diesel. As an alternative diesel fuel consisting of alkyl monoesters of fatty acids prepared from vegetable oils, it has been the focus of a substantial amount of recent research. Biodiesel consists of long-chain fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) obtained from…show more content…
Biodiesel can be utilized in pure form or blended with mineral diesel. It will gives equivalent engine performance to that of fossil diesel (Hoekman et al., 2012). The absence of soot, sulphur oxide (SOx) and particulate is approximately complete, and a reduction in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions can be detected. Additionally, the oxygen content in biodiesel is 10%–15% (Hoekman et al., 2012) by weight. Biodiesel has a higher density, kinematic viscosity, pour point and cloud point than mineral diesel fuel. On the other hand, biodiesel has energy content of about 12% lower than that of mineral diesel fuel on a mass basis. This will results in lower engine speed and power (Atabani et al., 2012). The fatty acid profile of the feedstock is one of the major determinants of its energy content. The fuel energy content (Sahoo et al., 2012) as well as the density changes directly influence the output engine power due to the different mass of fuel injected, as the injection systems measured fuel by volume. Hence, density is important for different aspects of diesel engine…show more content…
Broadening the contact area of the drug in the gastrointestinal tract, improving the bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs, and being able to serve as a carrier for a sustained controlled-release preparation, are all significant properties of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems. In addition, a microemulsion can mask the bad taste of a drug and improve its palatability. Researchers have identified that the optimal ratio of Brucea javanica oil to its excipients (Drug/Tween-80/TGFA) is 1:4:1 in terms of quality and stability (Liu et al., as cited by Chen et al., 2012). The single factor method has been used to find the optimal preparation method, and concluded that a temperature under 40°C is key to the stability of a microemulsion (Peng et al., as cited by Chen et al., 2012). Other researchers explored the effect of several other components on quality, using soya lecithin as the surfactant, dioctanoylde¬canoylglycerol as the oil phase, alcohol as the surfactant, and achieved enhanced bioavailability for an oral Brucea javanica oil microemulsion (Zhang et al., 2005). Further pharmacokinetic research showed that it took 6 hours to reach peak plasma drug concentrations after administration of a Brucea javanica oil microemulsion. This slow-release process indicated the feasibility of develop¬ing a

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