Human Eye Development Case Study

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The study of the human eye development has been studied intensively since the 1800s (Conlin ,2012).the study of the complex process of eye development began in 1817 by Christian Pander who found out that the optical vesicle is linked to the fore-brain. Later on in the 1850s, another researcher Robert Remark found out that it is from the lens vesicles that the lens epithelium part of the eye and fibers develops. Rudolph Albert also researched on eye development and documented in 1861 that the retina is formed from the optic cup. Later in 1875, it was discovered by Johannes Muller that the fibers of the optic nerves originate from the retina which develop into the brain hence enabling vision to occur. After the fertilization process, embryonic…show more content…
The ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm layers of the blastoderm are responsible for the formation of the eye fields within the embryo in the neural area. In the eye fields the optic vesicles are developed. The optical vesicles develop into optic cups within five days. It is during this stage that the crystalline and retina part of the eye starts to develop (Conlin ,2012). The ectoderm’s surface thickens to allow for the formation of the lens from the thickened cells of the ectoderm. The lens fully develop into their normal size as they appear during birth by week 36 of the gestation period. The iris develops at about 35 to 37 weeks. During this time, the optic nerve precursor which is called the optic stalk forms a connection with the brain. During the first trimester of pregnancy the cells and tissues usually develop simultaneously and in quick succession to form the different parts of the eye (Conlin ,2012). During the formation of the len, the cornea is also formed from the thickened ectoderm cells and a corneal epithelium is created. When the formation of the lens is complete, it becomes separated from the epithelium to form the anterior chamber. The cells of the neural crest will also have been separated from the neural plate. These cells then move to the anterior chamber where they create neuronal and also non-neuronal cells. These neuronal and non-neuronal cells also separate and migrate to the part which…show more content…
However, the person can see far objects easily. This is because the image is usually focused behind the retina. This happens when the eyeball lens’ refractive power is weak or if the eyeball is shorter than normal. This defect is usually corrected by using convex lenses in spectacles or in contacts(University of Bristol, 2015). Myopia This is an eye defect that affects vision such that the person is able to see near objects clearly while the far objects appear to be blurred. The image of an object is usually focused in front of the retina instead of being focused on it. This happens when the lens’ refractive power is stronger than normal or when the eyeball is longer than normal. This defect is corrected by using concave lenses in the spectacles or in contacts (University of Bristol, 2015). Astigmatism This is an eye defect that is characterised by the failure of the rays of light to be directed to a particular focal point on the retina. Some of the rays are directed away from the retina; either behind or in front of the retina. This is due to irregular curvature of the cornea. This defect is corrected by use of cylindrical lenses which are spherical and they are put in the out-of –focus axis (University of Bristol,

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