# Fire Pump Case Study

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CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS This chapter contains the theories and formulas that are considered in the operation and maintenance of fire pumps, in one of Ayala’s site. The restriction will be maintained at the pressure standard level recommended by bureau of fire protection or NFPA. It is a high-pressure job to operate a pump at a working fire. It is required to have high pressure in operating a pump which means there will be a need for a huge supply of water. Each part has its own requirement. In the study of hydraulics, friction loss, pump specifications, et cetera, in-order to have precise pumping operations, it is important to comprehend the basic concepts and terms where this system is based. Where basic concepts are to be discussed…show more content…
The nozzle pressure determines the proper pumping procedure needed. Nozzles have operating pressures that are different for each type. The shape and the maximum reach of the stream can be attained at these pressures: smooth-bore nozzles on a hose line operates best at 40psi to 50 psi, while on a master stream, smooth-bore nozzles are best to be operated at 80 psi. For both a hose line and a master stream, fog nozzles are operated at 100psi or 75psi for low-pressure models. At a lower pressure, the reach will obviously be reduced. At a higher pressure, the reach will be reduced as inside the nozzle, turbulence can occur. To maximize the horizontal reach, it should be elevated between 307 to 357…show more content…
This happens at the pump, it is the flowing pressure, which considers friction loss, head loss and system loss (if applicable), that is supplied to the nozzle to its favourable pressure. Which is explained by the formula: Pump Discharge Pressure = nozzle pressure (NP) + friction loss (FL) + head loss(HL) + system loss (SL) This is not applicable with preconnected hose lines. The length, the diameter and the nozzle cannot be changed. It is possible to prepare the calculation of the pump discharge pressure and be marked on the panel to ensure efficiency when it is needed. As for the head loss, it is easy to adjust when it is already in operation. At the start, when water is supplied to the nozzle crew, the static pressure reading should be checked first on the discharge gauge. This equates to the increased hydrant pressure due to the pump’s impeller rotation at idle. Which will have a higher pressure than the reading of the static pressure that is on the pump intake gauge. The nozzle should be opened, otherwise the pump discharge pressure cannot possibly be