WHAT IS QUANTUM?
Quantum is the Latin word which means “the smallest possible discrete unit of any physical property”, such as energy or matter. Quantum came into existence in 1900, when the physicist Max Planck used it in a presentation to the German Physical Society. Planck had sought to discover the reason that radiation from a glowing body changes its colour from red to orange and finally to blue when the temperature is raised. He found that by making the assumption that radiation existed in discrete units in the same way that matter does, rather than just as a constant electromagnetic wave, as been formerly assumed.
Max Planck wrote a mathematical equation involving a figure which represents individual units of energy.…show more content… Circulating currents will be induced to oppose the generation of magnetic field in the conductor (Lenz's law). In a solid material, it is called diamagnetism, and a perfect conductor will be a perfect diamagnetic. So, induced currents in it would meet no resistance, they would persist in whatever the magnitude necessary to cancel the external field changes.
Mixed-State Meissner Effect
In Type II superconductors the magnetic field is not excluded completely, but is constrained in the filaments within the material. These filaments are in normal state and are surrounded by super currents called a vortex state. These types of materials can be subjected to much higher external magnetic fields and remain superconducting. Spin Alignment vs. Electron Pairs
The makers of superconducting magnets face a basic difficulty which Lindenfeld has put succinctly "magnetism and superconductivity are natural enemies". Macroscopic magnetization depends upon the alignment of the electron spins parallel to one another, where superconductivity depends upon the pairs of electrons with their spins anti parallel. The Cooper pairs of electrons in BCS theory have a very small binding energy and the external magnetic fields exert a torque on the electron spins which tend to break up these pairs.
FUTURE PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
1. Car Luggage for Compact Vehicles