Declarative Knowledge Case Study

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An important distinction of knowledge theories is whether knowledge is declarative or procedural (Argote & Miron-Spektor, 2011) which is also labeled as tacit knowledge. Declarative knowledge is knowledge which can be articulated and codified, which is easily transferred, and which can be learned by formal education (Liebeskind, 1996; Nonaka & von Krogh, 2009) whereas procedural (tacit) knowledge is difficult to articulate, can hardly be transmitted between persons, and can only be acquired through individual experience (Berman, Down, & Hill, 2002; Kogut & Zander, 1993; Teece, Pisano, & Shuen, 1997). Knowledge about advisory processes can be considered to be mainly tacit and procedural and therefore must be gained by prior experiences in functions…show more content…
Therefore, as most directors see themselves primarily as controllers of top management, they might raise little attention for advisory related issues. Directors with experience in PSFs could act differently. Fosstenløkken, Løwendahl, and Revang (2003) note that one of the strongest differences of PSFs is their focus on providing services “within the constraints of professional norms of conduct” (p. 862). Accordingly, directors with experience in a PSF will be trained to act professional in any service role and will likely have a higher motivation to deliver excellent service. This also effects the board as a whole because individual efforts influence team member expectations about the energy every member has to put in to fulfil certain tasks (Forbes & Milliken, 1999). Thus, strong effort norms of PSF-experienced directors could improve the effectiveness of the advising function because board members spend more time and diligence towards service related…show more content…
Teams in PSFs develop systematic approaches to integrate existing knowledge into client-specific projects. In the dynamic environment of PSFs, all members of project teams need to have access to the knowledge of their colleagues to transform knowledge resources into performance (Gardner, Gino, & Staats, 2012). PSFs must quickly respond to the needs of their clients and, accordingly, try to constantly renew their knowledge structures (Anand et al., 2007; Hitt et al., 2006). Thus, directors with experience in a PSF are highly trained in using existing team knowledge to satisfy the needs of a service recipient. Researchers also stressed the importance of effective communication of directors with each other and the TMT as well as the ability to build strong relationships and to collaborate effectively (Finkelstein & Mooney, 2003; Westphal, 1999). Effective communication, trustful relations, and networks to clients are also main drivers of business success for PSFs (Glückler & Armbrüster, 2003). Accordingly, director’s procedural knowledge about effective service processes could be equally important than any domain specific

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