WEF Resources Case Study

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Overview Evaluation of WEF Resources Case Study No. 1 - Taniguchi et. al (2015) analyzed security measures based on the amount of resource, self-production, and diversity of sources of each resource. Diversity for all the three resources is also analyzed using surface water and groundwater for water sources; hydro power, geothermal power, solar, and biomass for energy; and cereals, vegetable, fruit, meat, and fish for food. They find a high diversity of sources of water in the US and the Philippines, and a low diversity of sources of food in the US, Canada, and Indonesia. These security measures including water security show new hydrological insight for Asia-Pacific region. Case Study No. 2 - Endo et al. (2015) reviewed the current state…show more content…
5 - Using the socio-ecological network model approach, Spiegelberg et al. (2015) explored the connectivity of upland farmers and downstream fishers through inter-linkages of water, energy, and food within the Dampalit sub-watershed of Laguna Lake, Philippines. The aim of the study is to yield policy relevant results to improve the status of the water resources and food products and to reduce possible user conflicts. Surveying 176 households mainly in the mid- and downstream areas elements and inter-linkages of the local Water-Energy-Food Nexus (WEF-Nexus) were identified by the five capitals of the sustainable livelihood approach through a socio-ecological network analysis. Besides the innovative methodology, this research adds to the underserved local perspective in the WEF Nexus research. The survey showed different livelihood profiles for the two groups and a lack of direct social links between them in the WEF-Nexus context. Also, indirect links through consumption of the other group's food products could not be identified. However, a large fraction of the population shares the use of charcoal for cooking, the Makiling groundwater for drinking and various household purposes and the Central Market in Los Banos for their food…show more content…
8 - In a similar water-energy nexus study, Jago-on et al. (2015) evaluated hot springs resorts and spas in the Philippines. Hot spring water resorts and spas in Calamba and Los Baños, Laguna are estimated to consume a large volume of groundwater which could result in over-extraction and decrease in groundwater quantity. However, monitoring of actual usage is difficult as most of these resorts do not have water use permits. The Water Code of the Philippines requires water users to register and apply for permits for water allocation, but still many resorts have not yet registered with the NWRB. If groundwater extraction is left unregulated, water availability for the resorts industry and for other uses in the future will be negatively affected. The decrease in groundwater supply can lead to competition and conflicts among different users. They concluded that it is necessary to strengthen the implementation of water regulations and enhance partnerships among the national and local government agencies, private sector groups, civil society and communities in the regular monitoring of groundwater resources to promote sustainable

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