Bullying Conceptual Framework

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The conceptual framework of this study is guiding by a conceptual model for the study and management of bullying at work which developed (Einersen, Hoel, Zapf, and Cooper, 2003) that identified the main classes of variables to be included in both future research and future organizational action programs. This model has four important things. First, this model distinguishes between the nature and cause of bullying behavior. That is, the behaviors exhibited by the alleged bully from the nature and cause of the perceptions of those behaviors by the victim perceived versus actual. Second, it distinguished between the perceived exposures to bullying behaviors from the reactions to these kinds of behaviors. Third, it focus on the organizational impact…show more content…
The escalation and the dynamic of interaction involved in the victimization process are therefore essential to understanding of the phenomenon of bullying at work. For this study, a theoretical framework for the study and management of bullying at work described bullying as multi-causality, involving a range of factors found at many explanatory levels, depending on the behavior of the actor or on the perceptions, reactions, and responses of the target in difference of cultural and socio-economical context. According to concept and literature reviews, there are important phenomena of workplace bullying including i) cause ii) perception iii) coping and iv)…show more content…
As well, the cause is considered as an effect on the organization which involves the bullying behavior (Einersen, Hoel, Zapf, & Cooper, 2003). A number of study have indicated that organizational factors, such as organizational climate and leadership style are related to workplace bullying (Einarsen, Raknes& Matthiesen, 1994; Vartia, 1996; Einarsen, Aasland, & Skogstad, 2007; Laschinger, Wong, & Grau, 2012 ). These finding support Laymann’s 1993) assertion the reasons for workplace bullying are to be found in the social work environment rather than in the individual. Thus, this study focus on organizational climate and leadership style are the cause of workplace bullying. Concerning perception of workplace bullying, new register nurses may perceive themselves as victims of bullying after they have the negative consequences, even though they already have bullying experiences before (Simons, 2008, 2010). The perceptions of victims and perpetrators will also be important factor involving their reactions and their response to the

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