Underdevelopment In Africa

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Development and underdevelopment are two terms that have found common usage in Africa’ (Mwaura, 2005: 1). History and experience ‘have taught us that development is a complex process and that no one has all the answers’ (Mkandawire and Soludo, eds. 1998). Rodney (1972:3) states that development in human society is a many-sided process. At the level of the individual, it implies increased skill and capacity, greater freedom, creativity, selfdiscipline, responsibility, and material well-being’. Mkandawire and Soludo, eds. (1998) stated that ‘the turn of the millennium, Africans must take a long and hard look at their development problematic because, in the end, only Africans can develop Africa’. According to Nyerere, in his book, UJAMAA:…show more content…
Aggrey Street in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania is named after Dr. James E. Kwegyir Aggrey (1875–1927) who met with Kwame Nkrumah at Prince of Wales’ College at Achimota (Achimota College) as mentioned by Davis, ed., (2005: 302, Ed.). The creation of a constitutionally single party state: The second important attempt taken by the independent African states was speaking loudly, openly and frankly about single-party, monoparty system. This aimed to transform the colonial multiparty system by which African leaders thought that colonial multi-party system will impede rapid growth of African political superstructure and development. Iliffe (1995, 2007: 395) noticed that ‘this politics seems to have entered the continent mainly through the Francophone states of West Africa, where Houphoüet-Boigny in the Ivory Coast and S´ekou Tour´e in Guinea installed what were virtually single-party regimes even before the formal transfer of power. By the middle of the 1960s, most of the other Francophone countries, with the notable exception of Senegal, had followed suit’. In guinea, Sékou Touré’s party was the Parti Démocratique de Guinée…show more content…
Kaunda, according to Mbwana, Nassoro H (2015: 383) independent African leaders had ‘introduced the political system based on “one-party participatory democracy” as a one-party state with a written constitution’. In Seychelles, after overthrowing President James Mancham, as pointed by Seddon & Seddon-Daines (2005: 462) President René administered the country as a one-party state for 14 years. In the Republic of Kenya, as known after independence in 1963, The KANU under Jomo Kenyatta formed a government together with a minority party, the KADU, which according to Seddon and Seddon (2005: 283, 286) represented minority ethnic groups, resented Kikuyu and Luo domination and hoped for the establishment of a federal state. The KANU eventually incorporated the KADU and excluded the breakaway radical Kenya People’s Union (KPU), to become, in 1964, the only party in Kenya. Therefore, towards the monoparty state, the KPU was the ‘leftist political party, formed by Oginga Odinga, a prominent Luo politician in Kenya, in 1965 after he split from the KANU. After the assassination of his main rival, Tom Mboya, who had become the leading political figure in KANU after Jomo Kenyatta, the President, in July 1969, Odinga was sentenced to 15 months’ imprisonment and the Kenya People’s Union was banned (ibid:

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