The Cattell-Carroll Model Of Intelligence

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1. The Cattell- Horn- Carroll model of intelligence is the best known compromise between the singular intelligence theory and the multiple intelligences theory. This model of intelligence proposes that there is a ‘g factor’ or general intelligence factor which was taken from Carroll’s original model. In the CHC model the general intelligence factor is made up of many different cognitive abilities. The piece that was taken from the Cattell&Horn model was the idea that there are two main types of intelligence: fluid intelligence and crystalized intelligence. The blend of the two theories makes up the CHC model of intelligence which has the general factor of intelligence that is comprised of ten strata: crystalized Intelligence, fluid Intelligence,…show more content…
When most people think of the word “intelligence” they often are only associating it to one thing, like how ‘smart’ you are or your intellectual ability. Howard Gardner suggests that there is not only one type of intelligence, but instead there are many different categories of intelligence. These are linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, spatial intelligence, musical intelligence, body kinaesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and naturalistic intelligence. His way of thinking of intelligence is meant to be a direct opposition to the Cattell- Horn-Carroll model of intelligence. Gardner does not believe that there is a ‘g’ that governs success in all actions. Gardner believes that there are certain criteria for intelligence. He looked for signs while evaluating sources like intelligence tests and experiments that were already conducted. The clues that he looked for suggested that the distinct type of intelligence was a specific intelligence separate from others. These were “potential isolation of the intelligence by brain damage, evolutionary advantage, an identifiable core operation, susceptibility to encoding in symbol system, distinct developmental history, existence of savants, support from experimental psychological tasks, and support from psychometric findings” (O’ Reilly, 2017). The main strength in looking at intelligence this way and Gardner’s theory is it helps to understand how individual differences effect different types of mental…show more content…
B.F. Skinner was a very influential behavioral psychologist. Behaviorism is concerned with ‘observable stimulus’ and declares that behaviors are learned, and most influenced by interacting with the environment. In behaviorism, it is helpful to study other animals because behaviorists believe that there aren’t many differences between the learning that takes place in humans and animals. In addition, behaviorism takes into the consideration that humans have feelings and inner thoughts, but does not care to study them as a cause of behavior (O’ Reilly, 2017). There are many different types of behaviorism, but B.F. Skinner founded and conducted many studies in Radical Behaviorism. The most important factor in Radical Behaviorism is that it is recognized that humans are born with some innate behaviors. It does not exclude the fact that genes and biology can play a role in behavior. Skinner believed that in order to truly understand human behavior, any act can be broken down into three contingencies: Antecedents, Behavior, and Consequences. Events that occur before a behavior, the behavior in itself, and the responses that follow a behavior. Skinner is the father of Operant Conditioning and the three contingencies are fundamental in his most famous experiment the ‘Skinner Box’. The key term in Operant Conditioning is ‘reinforcement.’ Skinner proposed that if a behavior is reinforced, it is more likely to be repeated. In the Skinner Box experiment, skinner placed a rat in a box

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