Sigmund Freud: The Psychology Of The Psychological Disority

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The Austrian neurologist and psychologist Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) established psychoanalysis in 1885. He was concerned with analyzing the psychology of human beings into its components. These components are the Id, ego and superego (Weiten 2010). Then, he studied the role being played by each part and the effect of their disorder upon people’s lives. Freud defined psychoanalysis as “it is an insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses through techniques such as free association and transference” (Weiten 2010, p. 626). This argument clearly shows that the aim of psychoanalysis is to diagnose and cure the psychological disorders which leave a negative impact upon the psychic life of human beings.…show more content…
All these defenses are included in Smith’s book (1999). First, selective perception means choosing what we hear and see according to our ability to handle it. Second, selective memory is what we choose to remember and what we choose to forget. For example, every human being wants to remember happy experiences and to forget painful ones. Third, denial is the consideration that the painful experience does not exist. Fourth, avoidance is to go away from people, places and situations that may make one remember a painful experience. Fifth, displacement is to transfer one’s anger from a powerful person toward someone who is inferior. Sixth, Projection is to ascribe one’s forbidden desires, wishes and acts to someone else. Finally, fear of intimacy is the fear of emotional involvement with other human beings. The other important key terms in Freud’s definition of psychoanalysis are free association and transference. While free association is the expression of thoughts and feelings as they are without the presence of the censorship, transference is the projection of feelings and desires from childhood memories toward a new object. The explanation of these two terms can be found in Weiten’s book…show more content…
Manifest dream is the one that does not carry psychological significance. It is considered as a remembrance of certain events through the day and the dreamer will not remember it clearly when he\she is awake. Latent dream is the one that carries a coded meaning which has to be interpreted. This type of dreams carries a psychological significance since the dream is the response to the wishes and desires being repressed. Another dominant figure in psychoanalysis is the French psychologist and psychiatrist Jacques Lacan (1901-1981). He was not only interested in the theoretical section of psychoanalysis but also in the practical one. He was interested in the application of these theories upon real patients who suffer from psychological disorders. One of his most known theories is ‘the mirror stage’ which was formulated in 1963. In his theory, he explains what happens to children from eight to sixteen months when they see their reflection in the mirror. He stated that the child recognizes himself\herself from the beginning. After recognizing themselves, they form their ego which will associate the image in the mirror with others images which can be of parents or siblings and even non-human

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