It is a system of notation that represents utterances or partial utterances of a Language pronounced by People in general.
Broad Transcription (Phonemic Transcription)
Is the notation that represents utterances of a language by indicating only the significant and underlying sounds (phonemes) that make up a word.
Phonemic transcription does not describe how an utterance actually sounds when produced by a particular speaker speaking in a particular style in a particular situation - phonemic transcription is the 'idealised' representation of the speech sounds, and supposed to represent the underlying contrasts that are meaningful to speakers. You can only do phonemic transcription when you have already done quite a bit of work…show more content… * Speakers differ from each other in their precise pronunciation and the same speaker may vary the pronunciations.
* Guidelines for transcription are therefore probabilistic in nature in that they suggest the most likely pronunciations.
* It is up to you to carefully listen to the actual recordings when doing your transcriptions and to record each speaker’s actual pronunciation (especially in the assignment).
In phonetics, intensity given to a syllable of speech by special effort in utterances, resulting in relative loudness. This emphasis in pronunciation may be merely phonetic.
In linguistic, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. The term is also used for similar patterns of phonetic prominence inside syllables.
Understanding syllables. - The understand word stress, it helps to understand syllables. Every word is made from syllables each word has one, two, three or more syllables.
The realization os stress in English
In english, the three ways to make a syllable more prominent are to make it:
* Higher pitched (usually)
In may languages, changing which syllable is stressed can change the meaning of a…show more content… • The key factor in a broad transcription is meaning -- if a pronunciation detail can change the meaning of words in a language, it must be included in a broad transcription of that language.
• Pronounces the word in general, or further still to how English speakers pronounce it in general, then you have to start making abstractions you have to decide which details to include and which to ignore.
• The advantage of the narrow transcription is that it can help learners to get exactly the right sound, and allows linguists to make detailed analyses of language variation.
• The disadvantage is that a narrow transcription is rarely representative of all speakers of a language.
• The advantage of the broad transcription is that it usually allows statements to be made which apply across a more diverse language community
• A rule of thumb in many linguistics contexts is therefore to use a narrow transcription when it is necessary for the point being made, but a broad transcription whenever possible.
• Don’t take phonetic transcriptions as gospel. If your ears tell you one thing and dictionary transcriptions tell you another, always trust your