2.1. Introduction In this literature review, there are certain properties, methods and definition regarding peat stabilization according to various sources from journals, articles and books. Topics that are going to be discussed in this chapter are the definition of peat, peat in Sarawak, engineering properties, stabilization of peat with cement and fly ash, difficulties of stabilizing peat and lastly effects of filler materials in stabilized peat. These various topics discussed are in regards to the scope of this study.
In a brief introduction to this chapter, peat is defined the accumulation of organic materials that have at least 75% content of organic matter (Andriesse, 1988; Huat, 2004). Malaysia itself have vast area of land comprises…show more content… (1975)
Figure 2.1 shows the peat distribution in Sarawak. From this map, it is clear that peat are mostly present at coastal areas where there is water sources such as rivers or beaches. According to Department of Irrigation and Drainage Sarawak, n.d., 19% of peat soil distribution are in the coastal and riverine areas whereas peat soils can be found easily at deltas to the inlands of a river system of Samarahan-Sadong, Lupar-Saribas, Rajang, Baram and Limbang. Figure 2.1: Map of distribution of peat soils in Sarawak (Department of Irrigation and Drainage Sarawak, n.d.)
2.4. Engineering properties of peat Peat is known to pose many problems to engineers and structures. According to Huat, 2004, as with the soil scientist and agriculturist, engineers regard peat land or soil as a very problematic soil where the best action to be taken is to avoid building any structures or use the land if possible. Peat is unlike any other types of mineral soils, where the engineering properties of peat has its own considerations. As any geotechnical engineers in the field, getting to know the engineering properties of peat is crucial in any project development especially during the site investigation and design process. With the knowledge of the engineering properties of peat, geotechnical engineers can assess and evaluate the potential of the designated…show more content… Hemic peat is also considered as hemic soil materials which are intermediate in their degree of decomposition, organic content and bulk density between the less decomposed fibric and more decomposed sapric materials (Huat, 2004; Soil Survey Staff, 1999). According to classification of Soil Taxonomy 2nd Edition (Soil Survey Staff, 1999), peat morphological features give intermediate values for fiber content, bulk density, and dihydrogen monoxide content. Hemic soil materials are partly altered both physically and biochemically. Peat geographic distribution is widespread. Hemic peat are commonly dark reddish brown in colour (Huat, 2004). The fibers are largely eradicated when the wet organic material is rubbed. Bulk density commonly is between 0.07 and 0.18, the fiber content mundanely is between one-third and two-thirds of the volume before rubbing, and the maximum dihydrogen monoxide content at saturation commonly ranges from about 450 to 850 percent. Hemic materials do not meet both the fiber content (after rubbing) and the sodium-pyrophosphate solubility requisites for either fibric or sapric