Paradigms In Research

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Research Paradigms Researchers have many techniques in which they accumulate information and devise a theory. Since varying situations may produce different results, psychologists often manipulate variables in a controlled experiment to replicate different environments. In other cases, researchers choose not to control any part of a study but to rather observe individuals in their natural environment even if the subject is oblivious to the observation. After compiling a research question to clearly decide what the study will focus on, researchers must come up with a paradigm, or research method, to conduct the observations. Once a research question has been compiled, researchers have an option to conduct experimental studies, which involve…show more content…
Additionally, in an experimental setting, other aspects of the environment that can affect the results are eliminated which results in a more accurate theory. On the downside, although the environment is controlled which eliminates biases, the results may be distorted since in real life there will always be environmental factors; thus, the eliminated variables controls the results to an extreme. Another limitation is that in a controlled setting, foreign apparatus and artificial methods may be used which causes the subject to respond differently than in his or her natural environment. While experimental research has its pros and cons, nonexperimental research also has advantages and disadvantages. The natural environment of such a study allows for more unbiased results since nothing is being manipulated. However, this may cause inaccuracies because there is no control group to compare to and there are no manipulated variables that make the experiment constant, which may lead to unreliable data. Another limitation is that at times the subject is aware that he or she is being observed which causes the individual to be stressed, which affects the…show more content…
This method is valuable for the research of behavior disorders in children. Cross-sectional studies compare the behaviors and development of a vast group of individuals of the same age to compare developmental milestones and delays, whereas longitudinal studies follow the same individuals for a number of years to observe developmental milestones and the evolvement of behavior disorders. Both studies opt to measure the dependent variable according to the developmental trajectory of the individual. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have advantages and limitations. An advantage of a longitudinal study is that the same individual gets observed over an extended period so the deviation from the norm can more easily be recognized than when comparing an individual to a large group at a given time. The limitational to longitudinal designs may be the fact that the participant becomes aware of the testing process and forges his/her responses or behaviors. Additionally, certain environmental situations, such as war or economic issues, may affect the behavior of an individual which may be confused as a developmental issue. Subject attrition, such as the refusal of a participant to continue the study, or the death of a participant may be another limitation of a longitudinal method. Moreover, investigator attrition may also be present if the study stretches for an extended time. These

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