Literature Review: Literature Based On Lean Manufacturing

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CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 LITERATURE BASED ON LEAN MANUFACTURING Michael H. McGivern, Alex Stiber, [8], studied the Lean Manufacturing System and implemented it in an Organization and analyzes the results. They Showed the implementation method and time period, which are followings The First Six Months: Building Organizational Awareness  Senior leaders clarify the business case for using lean manufacturing techniques.  Senior leaders ensure that lean manufacturing techniques are consistent with the organization’s long-term vision.  Management assesses the organization’s readiness to make the transition to lean manufacturing.  Upper management defines the baseline measures of…show more content…
Taiichi Ohno (co-developer of the Toyota Production System) suggests that these account for up to 95% of all costs in non-Lean manufacturing environments. These wastes are:  Overproduction – Producing more than the customer demands. The corresponding Lean principle is to manufacture based upon a pull system, or producing products just as customers order them. Anything produced beyond this (buffer or safety stocks, work-in-process inventories, etc.) ties up valuable labor and material resources that might otherwise be used to respond to customer demand.  Waiting – This includes waiting for material, information, equipment, tools, etc. Lean demands that all resources are provided on a just-in-time (JIT) basis – not too soon, not too late.  Transportation – Material should be delivered to its point of use. Instead of raw materials being shipped from the vendor to a receiving location, processed, moved into a warehouse, and then transported to the assembly line, Lean demands that the material be shipped directly from the vendor to the location in the assembly line where it will be used. The Lean term for this technique is called point-of-use-storage…show more content…
One of the most important benefits for implementing Lean Principles in manufacturing organizations is the elimination or postponement of plans for expansion of warehouse space.  Defects – Production defects and service errors waste resources in four ways. First, materials are consumed. Second, the labor used to produce the part (or provide the service) the first time cannot be recovered. Third, labor is required to rework the product (or redo the service). Fourth, labor is required to address any forthcoming customer complaints.  Excess Motion – Unnecessary motion is caused by poor workflow, poor layout, housekeeping, and inconsistent or undocumented work methods. Value Stream Mapping (see above) is also used to identify this type of waste.  Underutilized People – This includes underutilization of mental, creative, and physical skills and abilities, where non-Lean environments only recognize underutilization of physical attributes. Some of the more common causes for this waste include – poor workflow, organizational culture, inadequate hiring practices, poor or non-existent training, and high employee turnover. Lean Building

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