Into The Unknown 'And The Sociological Imagination'

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The articles “Into the Unknown” by Kevin Warwick and “The Sociological Imagination” by James Flynn both delve in the subject of intelligence and its controversies. Both authors criticize the current research that determines intelligence for all organisms and construct ideas to improve by arguing what has been neglected in this research. Their arguments are written for psychologists to consider other possibilities that compare brain cognition, such as socioeconomic backgrounds. In “Into the Unknown,” Warwick’s main claim is that intelligence is multidimensional in need to be put in context while regarding its subjectivity. Flynn’s main claim in “The Sociological Imagination” is the necessity of taking social aspects into account for intelligence…show more content…
The evidence of “IQ [being] measured on a comparative scale” in Flynn’s article stresses the insufficient data of current psychologists resulting in the non-similarities between tests and brain cognition (Flynn 160). Because IQ is based on another’s previous IQ, the groundwork being too vague and biased leads to unreliable outcomes when comparing intelligences. Similarly, Warwick reasons with intelligence being strictly constrained of test numbers written only for a small percentage of the population when many more attributes need to be involved in order to begin comparing (Warwick 202). Flynn’s sub-claim of faulty tests exposes Warwick’s sub-claim that intelligent tests are created to be one-sided. Flynn provides explanation of what flaws are behind IQ tests and Warwick extends it by giving reasons of why IQ tests are flawed. This extension of sub-claims about intelligence tests correlates to Flynn’s article acting as a background for Warwick’s more-developed main claim to emphasize the limitless measuring of brain cognition. Ultimately, human beings are not entitled to the results of those inaccurate tests, as Flynn demonstrates, because, in support of Warwick, IQ is merely a number when intelligence is far more than…show more content…
Warwick uses examples such as the negative effects in India and the positive effects China from this loop to support his reason of all factors of living life being linked to intelligence (Warwick 204). Similarly, the evidence of the Dickens-Flynn model behind twin studies, Flynn himself presents, lies to an agreement with Warwick of both nature and nurture being equally significant to the growth of intelligence (Flynn 169). Both successfully attack the current research that is solely based on IQ testing, and instead provide alternatives for a better approach for an accurate depiction of intelligence--the inclusion of environmental factors. The parallel reasons and evidence of different living standards from Flynn and Warwick coincides each others arguments showing the intersecting main claim of the necessity for a social context to determine intelligence, because without it, the juxtaposition of the life and intelligence feedback loop is skewed. The complementing arguments broadens Flynn’s main claim of adding a social context which Warwick utilizes to strengthen his main claim of infinite aspects that intelligence considers. Hence, the converging sub-claim sharpens the understanding that intelligence tests cannot describe an individual's cognitive skills as a whole because it overlooks the environment

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