Intermolecular Forces Essay

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Intermolecular Forces Thermodynamic properties of any pure substance are determined by intermolecular forces, which operate between the molecules of the substance. Similarly, thermodynamic properties of a mixture depend on intermolecular forces that operate between the molecules of the mixture. In order to interpret and correlate thermodynamic properties of solutions, it is therefore necessary to have some understanding of the nature of intermolecular forces. There are many different types of intermolecular forces. These forces may be classified under the following arbitrary but convenient headings. i. Electrostatic forces ii. Induction forces iii. Dispersion forces iv. Specific (chemical) forces Intermolecular forces are always expressed…show more content…
Chemical forces play an important role in determining thermodynamic properties of solutions. Chemical effects in solution are conveniently classified in terms of association or salvation. Association means the tendency of same molecules to form polymers whereas salvation means the tendency of molecules of different species to form complexes. The most common chemical effect encountered in the thermodynamics of solutions is that due to the hydrogen bond. This bond formation between the molecules of liquid mixtures is another common chemical effect that influences the thermodynamic properties of solutions to a greater extent than other specific and physical interactions60. The magnitude of volume change will be determined by the structure breaking ability of the inert solvent. If unlike molecules participate in hydrogen bonding, it would result in evolution of heat and contraction in volume. In mixtures wherein both the aforesaid effects compete with one another, the sign of excess function will depend on the predominant effect. The binary liquid mixtures containing strong polar solvents, specific interactions arise with their strong orientation effects such as electron donor-acceptor interactions. These interactions may be expected to occur between molecules having groups with unshared electrons, π electrons and molecules with centres of local electron deficiency leading to the formation of

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