Indole Lab Report

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Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound with formula C8H7N. It has a bicyclic structure, consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered nitrogen-containing pyrrole ring. Indole is widespread in the natural environment and can be produced by a variety of Gram-positive and Gram- negative bacteria. Indole as an intercellular signal molecule has the ability to regulate various aspects of bacterial physiology, including plasmid stability, resistance to drugs, spore formation, plasmid stability, and biofilm formation. Tryptophan amino acid considers as an indole derivative and the precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (Lee, et al., 2010). Fig (1): Skeletal formula with numbering scheme 1.1. General properties…show more content…
It can be biologically produced by the bacteria degradation of the tryptophan amino acid. Indole and its derivatives can also be found naturally in human feces and have an intense fecal odor. Many essential oils and coal tar contain indole as well (Nelson, et al., 2005). A lot of indole alkaloid derivatives were found in nature such as the plant growth hormone (Auxin) which contains (indolyl-3-acetic acid). Indoles consider as the key element of many pharmaceuticals. Some other indoles compounds are present in many important biological compounds such as in tryptophan which consider as indole derivatives while melatonin and serotonin are biochemically active indole molecules. (Bratulescu, George, 2008). 1.2. Indole: Chemical and Biological Importance Indole is the parent substance of a large number of important compounds that exist in nature. It has solid colourless crystalline shape. Indole and some of its derivatives contain various odours ranging from naphthalene for indole itself to faecal odours like (3-methylindole) (2, Figure 2). Tryptophan (3, Figure 2) is one of the naturally occurring essential amino acids. Higher plants have the ability to degrade tryptophan to heteroauxin (indole-3-acetic acid) (4, Figure 2) which is considered as a plant hormone. (Nagendra, et al.,…show more content…
Cruciferous vegetables are full of glucobrassicin (GB) which throughout metabolism, produce indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and its dimeric product 3, 3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) and ascorbigen (ASC). I3C and DIM have anticancer activity against a number of human cancers cells in vitro and in vivo. (Yuan, et al., 2011). Natural compounds found in fruits and vegetables are recognized to have anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. The highly dietary intake of fruits and vegetables containing indole compounds shows a beneficial effect against carcinogenesis and an inhibitory effect on tumorigenesis and the risk of cancers have also diminished (Heber, et al., 2001). Epidemiological statistics reveal that populations that consume higher amounts of cruciferous vegetables have improved biochemical parameters and lower incidences of cancer or, such as decreased oxidative pressure compared to controls. Cruciferous vegetables protect from cancer more successfully than fruits and other vegetables. So the National Research Council, USA, has recommended consumption of cruciferous vegetables as a measure to diminish the commonness of cancer (El Sayed, et al.,

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