Diabetic Nephropathy Research Paper

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DN is characterized by hypertrophy and expansion in the glomerular mesangium, thickening of glomerular basement membrane, reduction in podocyte number, podocyte dysfunction and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins resulting from an imbalance in synthesis and degradation. Morphological changes of diabetic nephropathy are also seen in the tubulo-interstitium and intrarenal vasculature. Tubulo-interstitium changes include fibrosis while vascular changes include arteriolar thickening and hyalinization. The earliest marker of renal involvement in diabetic nephropathy is proteinuria. But at the same time it should also be noted that kidneys might have already been significantly damaged by the time proteinuria appears and hence prevention against ESRD may be too late at this stage.…show more content…
It is found that cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for approximately 60% of the life years lost from diabetes. The risk of cardiovascular disease is disproportionately higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy than patients with diabetes who do not have kidney disease. Combination of diabetes and diabetic kidney disease is usually associated with poor prognosis and imposes the most significant burden of morbidity, mortality and quality of life. Diabetic patients have 17 times greater chance for dying from renal disease compared to non-diabetics. The incident dialysis rate might even be higher after adjusting for patients dying from cardiovascular disease before reaching ESRD. United States Renal Data System (USRDS) data shows that elderly patients with triad of DM, CKD and heart failure have five times higher chance of death than progression to CKD and ESRD. It should also be noted that morbidity of DN is rising year by year with the increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetes. The five

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