1. How should Cuba’s foreign policy vis-à-vis Africa be characterized?
Cuba’s foreign policy in relation with Africa should be characterized as very strong. The historical and cultural root of the African continent and its significant stamp on the formation of the Cuban nationality is an important pillar in the actions of the foreign policy of Cuba (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Cuba, 2010). Cuba is a proud member of the African Diaspora and is acknowledged by the African Union as the sixth region (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Cuba, 2010). Cuba holds diplomatic relations with 53 of the 54 African states. Cuba also has 30 embassies in Africa, the latest embassy was established in Djibouti in 2011 (Ministry…show more content… There is a signed agreement between Africa and Cuba aimed at laying the groundwork for cooperation in various fields with the regional organization, from September 2007 (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Cuba, 2010). Despite the diplomatic pressures, Africa has voted unanimously against the blockade in the UNGA for several years and has adopted four resolutions against the blockade within the African Union. Cuba rejects the manipulation of African conflicts in international organizations and trusts in the ability of African leaders to resolve situations and problems relating to peace and security in the region (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Cuba, 2010). Today Africa more than 6000 Cuban collaborators are working in 33 different countries (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Cuba, 2010).In the last four decades, Cuba has had a huge military presence in Africa. In Angola, Cuban troops, supported logistically by the U.S.S.R, backed the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in its effort to take power after Portugal granted Angola its independence (Miamipress, 2007). Cuban forces…show more content… Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs President Reagan, developed a “linkage policy”, this policy tied together apartheid South Africa's agreement to retreat from Angola and to surrender control of Namibia in line with United Nations Security Council Resolution 435 to Cuba's troop withdrawal from Angola (Davies, 2008). On February 7, 1981, Crocker formally proposed that the United States should link Namibian independence to the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola, where they had been helping the MPLA government of Jose Eduardo dos Santos to control South African-backed UNITA rebels (Davies, 2008). In April 1981, Crocker was sent to Africa to lay the groundwork for the new policy (Davies, 2008). However, Crocker was met with distrust on one side – the black leaders were suspicious of the Reagans governments friendly approach towards the white-minority government in South Africa – and hostility from the other, with prime minister P. W. Botha refusing to meet with him(Davies, 2008). Crocker continued to insist that a comprehensive solution was the only way to allay the fears on both sides (Davies,