Essay On Untreated Wastewater

708 Words3 Pages
The agricultural sector is known to be the largest user of water, accounting for nearly 70% of the global water use on average (Winpenny et al. 2010) The fact that an estimated 20 million hectares worldwide are irrigated with wastewater suggests that the wastewater is potentially a major source for irrigation. However, much of the wastewater that is used for irrigation is untreated (Jiménez and Asano 2008; Scott et al. 2004). This is especially so in developing countries, where the partially treated or untreated wastewater is used for the purpose (Scott et al. 2010). Untreated wastewater often contains a large range of chemical contaminants from waste sites, chemical wastes from industrial discharges, heavy metals, fertilizers, textile, leather and paper industry, sewage waste, food processing…show more content…
These contaminants pose health risks to communities (farmers and agricultural workers, their families, and the consumers of wastewater-irrigated crops) living in the proximity of wastewater sources, areas irrigated with untreated wastewater (Qadir et al. 2007). The exposure pathway of untreated wastewater used in irrigation and associated health effects is shown in Figure 1. The direct use of wastewater in agriculture or irrigation obstructs the growth of natural plants and grasses, causes the loss of biodiversity and aids in the erosion of adjacent buildings. Shuval et al. (1995), reported on one of the earliest evidences connecting agricultural wastewater reuse with the occurrence of diseases. Exposure to wastewater has been linked to viral, bacterial, and protozoan diseases such as salmonellosis, shigellosis, cholera, giardiasis, amoebiasis, hepatitis A, viral enteritis, and other diarrheal diseases (WHO 2006). Also, helminths (nematodes and tape worms) are common intestinal parasites, which are transmitted through the fecal-oral route (Toze

    More about Essay On Untreated Wastewater

      Open Document