Basque Separatist Conflict: Case Study

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Part 1 The Basque Separatist Conflict is fought between Spain’s and France’s governments and the Basque National Liberation Movement, including the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (“Basque Homeland and Freedom”) (ETA), which seeks to gain independence from Spain and France. The Basque people live in a region that lies in both Spain and France. The conflict began during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) when General Francisco Franco overthrew the Spanish Republic and instilled himself as the dictator of Spain. The Basque people supported the Republican cause, and thus, in 1937, Franco called on Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy to bomb the Basque region. During Franco’s reign of Spain, Basque culture became strictly prohibited, even saying kaixo (“hello” in the Basque language) could…show more content…
Majority of the Northern Irish were Protestants, so they remained under British rule. Over the years after their independence the Protestants in Northern Ireland secured the best living standards, causing provocation among the one-third of the population who were Catholics. Catholics in Northern Ireland found themselves effectively excluded from political processes, as well as discriminated against in terms of finding jobs and obtaining public housing. “The Troubles” officially began in the late 1960s when Catholic marches against discrimination, which were opposed by the Northern Ireland government. Soon these peaceful protests escalated into violence. The fighting escalated, and bombs, violence, and killings became the everyday life of Northern Ireland citizens. In 1998, a multi-party agreement, known as the Good Friday Agreement ,was signed to set up a power-sharing government in Northern Ireland. Although Northern Ireland is relatively peaceful today, there is still a clear division between the two religious

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