The Negative Effects Of Breadmaking Process

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Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1. Background to Research 1.1.1. Breadmaking process: An engineering perspective “Bread… is a discovery of man - one of his first great chemical triumphs” - H.E. Jacob, 1944 Conventionally, “Bread” is defined as a product baked in an oven, from the dough that has been raised by yeast or other leavening agent (Jacob, 2007). Alternatively, from a food engineer’s perspective, bread can be described as solid foam since it constitutes a final gas volume of over 70%. This is justified as materials with high gas fraction in the order of more than 50% are usually designated as foams (Scanlon & Zghal, 2001). Foam can be defined as a multiphase mixture, constituted by the gas-liquid phases which…show more content…
Bran constitutes about 12-15% of the whole wheat grain and consists of several layers with varied composition, including the outer and inner pericarp, testa and the aleurone layers (Fig. 1.1). The beneficial effects of wheat bran are well-known in terms of reducing the risk of certain types of cancer, positive effect on the gastrointestinal tract and more importantly, providing health benefits to diabetics by exerting control over the glycemic index, thereby reducing the requirement for insulin or hypoglycemic agents (Cho & Clark, 2001; Almeida et al., 2013). The above attributes render wheat bran as a significant ingredient of industrial relevance to produce fibre-rich food products combined with nutraceutical…show more content…
1.2, it is evident that the earlier studies have considered the dilution, disruption and conformational changes of gluten as the predominant cause for retarded volume development in the presence of bran in dough formulation. The impact of bran addition has been considered predominantly with respect to the volume and texture of final product (loaf), rather than the volume and rheological properties of dough during the intermediate stages. Because, it was believed that the aerated structure created in the mixer directly affects the final baked loaf texture (Chamberlain and Collins, 1979; Cauvain et al., 1999; Campbell, 2003). Later, it was hypothesized or suggested that bran addition impacts the aerated structure of bread during different stages involved in the process (Campbell et al., 2008). However, hitherto, there are no detailed investigations on the effect of bran addition on the development of aerated structure. In this context, a relevant quantifying parameter that could explain the influence of bran addition on the evolution of aerated structure during the breadmaking process is the ‘bubble dynamics’. However, this aspect is often less studied owing to its transient nature and the opacity of dough leading to limitations in visualization. Thus, in this research work, it is proposed to study the influence of wheat bran on the bubble dynamics during breadmaking process. The hypothesis is that the negative impact of wheat bran addition leading to reduced loaf volume

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